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Title: Spectral analysis of Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations based on the empirical mode decomposition

Abstract

Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations recorded by means of probes located at the channel exit are analyzed using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method. This self-adaptive technique permits to decompose a nonstationary signal into a set of intrinsic modes, and acts as a very efficient filter allowing to separate contributions of different underlying physical mechanisms. Applying the Hilbert transform to the whole set of modes allows to identify peculiar events and to assign them a range of instantaneous frequency and power. In addition to 25 kHz breathing-type oscillations which are unambiguously identified, the EMD approach confirms the existence of oscillations with instantaneous frequencies in the range of 100-500 kHz typical for ion transit-time oscillations. Modeling of high-frequency modes ({nu}{approx}10 MHz) resulting from EMD of measured wave forms supports the idea that high-frequency plasma oscillations originate from electron-density perturbations propagating azimuthally with the electron drift velocity.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [4]
  1. Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, 00049 Warsaw (Poland)
  2. (France)
  3. (Poland)
  4. (Poland) and Department of Mathematics, Computer Sciences and Mechanics, Warsaw University, 02097 Warsaw (Poland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20782414
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas; Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 12; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2145020; (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; CHARGED-PARTICLE TRANSPORT; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DISTURBANCES; ELECTRON DENSITY; ELECTRON DRIFT; FILTERS; HALL EFFECT; IONS; KHZ RANGE; MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS; MHZ RANGE; OSCILLATIONS; PLASMA; PLASMA DENSITY; PLASMA GUNS; PLASMA INSTABILITY; PLASMA SIMULATION; PLASMA WAVES; THRUSTERS; WAVE FORMS

Citation Formats

Kurzyna, J., Mazouffre, S., Lazurenko, A., Albarede, L., Bonhomme, G., Makowski, K., Dudeck, M., Peradzynski, Z., Laboratoire d'Aerothermique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique IC Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2, Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, Universite Henri Poincare, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, 00049 Warsaw, Laboratoire d'Aerothermique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique IC Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2, and Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, 00049 Warsaw. Spectral analysis of Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations based on the empirical mode decomposition. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2145020.
Kurzyna, J., Mazouffre, S., Lazurenko, A., Albarede, L., Bonhomme, G., Makowski, K., Dudeck, M., Peradzynski, Z., Laboratoire d'Aerothermique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique IC Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2, Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, Universite Henri Poincare, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, 00049 Warsaw, Laboratoire d'Aerothermique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique IC Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2, & Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, 00049 Warsaw. Spectral analysis of Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations based on the empirical mode decomposition. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2145020.
Kurzyna, J., Mazouffre, S., Lazurenko, A., Albarede, L., Bonhomme, G., Makowski, K., Dudeck, M., Peradzynski, Z., Laboratoire d'Aerothermique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique IC Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2, Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, Universite Henri Poincare, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, 00049 Warsaw, Laboratoire d'Aerothermique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique IC Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2, and Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, 00049 Warsaw. Thu . "Spectral analysis of Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations based on the empirical mode decomposition". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2145020.
@article{osti_20782414,
title = {Spectral analysis of Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations based on the empirical mode decomposition},
author = {Kurzyna, J. and Mazouffre, S. and Lazurenko, A. and Albarede, L. and Bonhomme, G. and Makowski, K. and Dudeck, M. and Peradzynski, Z. and Laboratoire d'Aerothermique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique IC Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 and Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, Universite Henri Poincare, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex and Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, 00049 Warsaw and Laboratoire d'Aerothermique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique IC Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 and Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, 00049 Warsaw},
abstractNote = {Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations recorded by means of probes located at the channel exit are analyzed using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method. This self-adaptive technique permits to decompose a nonstationary signal into a set of intrinsic modes, and acts as a very efficient filter allowing to separate contributions of different underlying physical mechanisms. Applying the Hilbert transform to the whole set of modes allows to identify peculiar events and to assign them a range of instantaneous frequency and power. In addition to 25 kHz breathing-type oscillations which are unambiguously identified, the EMD approach confirms the existence of oscillations with instantaneous frequencies in the range of 100-500 kHz typical for ion transit-time oscillations. Modeling of high-frequency modes ({nu}{approx}10 MHz) resulting from EMD of measured wave forms supports the idea that high-frequency plasma oscillations originate from electron-density perturbations propagating azimuthally with the electron drift velocity.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2145020},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 12,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Dec 15 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Thu Dec 15 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}
  • Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) based time series analysis was carried out on nonlinear floating potential fluctuations obtained from hollow cathode glow discharge plasma in the presence of anode glow. HHT was used to obtain contour plots and the presence of nonlinearity was studied. Frequency shift with time, which is a typical nonlinear behaviour, was detected from the contour plots. Various plasma parameters were measured and the concepts of correlation coefficients and the physical contribution of each intrinsic mode function have been discussed. Physically important quantities such as instantaneous energy and their uses in studying physical phenomena such as intermittency andmore » non-stationary data have also been discussed.« less
  • Electron transport across the magnetic field in Hall effect thrusters is still an open question. Models have so far assumed 1/B{sup 2} or 1/B scaling laws for the 'anomalous' electron mobility, adjusted to reproduce the integrated performance parameters of the thruster. We show that models based on such mobility laws predict very different ion velocity distribution functions (IVDF) than measured by laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A fixed spatial mobility profile, obtained by analysis of improved LIF measurements, leads to much better model predictions of thruster performance and IVDF than 1/B{sup 2} or 1/B mobility laws for discharge voltages in themore » 500-700 V range.« less
  • Plasma oscillations from 0–100 kHz in a 6-kW magnetically shielded Hall thruster are experimentally characterized with a high-speed, optical camera. Two modes are identified at 7–12 kHz and 70–90 kHz. The low frequency mode is found to be azimuthally uniform across the thruster face, while the high frequency oscillation is peaked close to the centerline-mounted cathode with an m = 1 azimuthal dependence. An analysis of these results in the context of wave-based theory suggests that the low frequency wave is the breathing mode oscillation, while the higher frequency mode is gradient-driven. The effect of these oscillations on thruster operation is examined through an analysismore » of thruster discharge current and a comparison with published observations from an unshielded variant of the thruster. Most notably, it is found that although the oscillation spectra of the two thrusters are different, they exhibit nearly identical steady-state behavior.« less
  • Collective scattering measurements have been conducted on the plasma of a Hall thruster, in which the electron density fluctuations are fully characterized by the dynamic form factor. The dynamic form factor amplitude distribution has been measured depending on the k-vector spatial and frequency components at different locations. Fluctuations are seen as propagating waves. The largest amplitude mode propagates nearly along the cross-field direction but at a phase velocity that is much smaller than the ExB drift velocity. Refined directional analysis of this largest amplitude mode shows a thin angular emission diagram with a mean direction that is not strictly alongmore » the ExB direction but at small angles near it. The deviation is oriented toward the anode in the (E,ExB) plane and toward the exterior of the thruster channel in the (B,ExB) plane. The density fluctuation rate is on the order of 1%. These experimentally determined directional fluctuation characteristics are discussed with regard to the linear kinetic theory model and particle-in-cell simulation results.« less
  • A Hall thruster is a cross-field plasma device used for spacecraft propulsion. An important unresolved issue in the development of Hall thrusters concerns the effect of discharge oscillations in the range of 10–30 kHz on their performance. The use of a high speed Langmuir probe system and ultra-fast imaging of the discharge plasma of a Hall thruster suggests that the discharge oscillation mode, often called the breathing mode, is strongly correlated to an axial global ionization mode. Stabilization of the global oscillation mode is achieved as the magnetic field is increased and azimuthally rotating spokes are observed. A hybrid-direct kinetic simulationmore » that takes into account the transport of electronically excited atoms is used to model the discharge plasma of a Hall thruster. The predicted mode transition agrees with experiments in terms of the mean discharge current, the amplitude of discharge current oscillation, and the breathing mode frequency. It is observed that the stabilization of the global oscillation mode is associated with reduced electron transport that suppresses the ionization process inside the channel. As the Joule heating balances the other loss terms including the effects of wall loss and inelastic collisions, the ionization oscillation is damped, and the discharge oscillation stabilizes. A wide range of the stable operation is supported by the formation of a space charge saturated sheath that stabilizes the electron axial drift and balances the Joule heating as the magnetic field increases. Finally, it is indicated from the numerical results that there is a strong correlation between the emitted light intensity and the discharge current.« less