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Title: Spaceborne profiling of atmospheric temperature and particle extinction with pure rotational Raman lidar and of relative humidity in combination with differential absorption lidar: performance simulations

Abstract

The performance of a spaceborne temperature lidar based on the pure rotational Raman (RR) technique in the UV has been simulated. Results show that such a system deployed onboard a low-Earth-orbit satellite would provide global-scale clear-sky temperature measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with precisions that satisfy World Meteorological Organization (WMO) threshold observational requirements for numerical weather prediction and climate research applications. Furthermore, nighttime temperature measurements would still be within the WMO threshold observational requirements in the presence of several cloud structures. The performance of aerosol extinction measurements from space, which can be carried out simultaneously with temperature measurements by RR lidar, is also assessed. Furthermore, we discuss simulations of relative humidity measurements from space obtained from RR temperature measurements and water-vapor data measured with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20779325
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Optics; Journal Volume: 45; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: DOI: 10.1364/AO.45.002474; (c) 2006 Optical Society of America; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ABSORPTION; AEROSOLS; AMBIENT TEMPERATURE; CLIMATES; CLOUDS; FORECASTING; HUMIDITY; LIGHT SCATTERING; OPTICAL RADAR; PARTICLES; PERFORMANCE; SATELLITES; SIMULATION; SKY; STRATOSPHERE; TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT; TROPOSPHERE; WATER VAPOR; WEATHER; WMO

Citation Formats

Di Girolamo, Paolo, Behrendt, Andreas, and Wulfmeyer, Volker. Spaceborne profiling of atmospheric temperature and particle extinction with pure rotational Raman lidar and of relative humidity in combination with differential absorption lidar: performance simulations. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1364/AO.45.0.
Di Girolamo, Paolo, Behrendt, Andreas, & Wulfmeyer, Volker. Spaceborne profiling of atmospheric temperature and particle extinction with pure rotational Raman lidar and of relative humidity in combination with differential absorption lidar: performance simulations. United States. doi:10.1364/AO.45.0.
Di Girolamo, Paolo, Behrendt, Andreas, and Wulfmeyer, Volker. Mon . "Spaceborne profiling of atmospheric temperature and particle extinction with pure rotational Raman lidar and of relative humidity in combination with differential absorption lidar: performance simulations". United States. doi:10.1364/AO.45.0.
@article{osti_20779325,
title = {Spaceborne profiling of atmospheric temperature and particle extinction with pure rotational Raman lidar and of relative humidity in combination with differential absorption lidar: performance simulations},
author = {Di Girolamo, Paolo and Behrendt, Andreas and Wulfmeyer, Volker},
abstractNote = {The performance of a spaceborne temperature lidar based on the pure rotational Raman (RR) technique in the UV has been simulated. Results show that such a system deployed onboard a low-Earth-orbit satellite would provide global-scale clear-sky temperature measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with precisions that satisfy World Meteorological Organization (WMO) threshold observational requirements for numerical weather prediction and climate research applications. Furthermore, nighttime temperature measurements would still be within the WMO threshold observational requirements in the presence of several cloud structures. The performance of aerosol extinction measurements from space, which can be carried out simultaneously with temperature measurements by RR lidar, is also assessed. Furthermore, we discuss simulations of relative humidity measurements from space obtained from RR temperature measurements and water-vapor data measured with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique.},
doi = {10.1364/AO.45.0},
journal = {Applied Optics},
number = 11,
volume = 45,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 10 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Mon Apr 10 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}
  • Aerosol Raman lidar observations of profiles of the particle extinction and backscatter coefficients and the respective extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) were performed under highly polluted conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China in October 2004 and at Beijing during a clear period with moderately polluted to background aerosol conditions in January 2005. The anthropogenic haze in the PRD is characterized by volume light-extinction coefficients of particles ranging from approximately 200 to800 Mm-1 and lidar ratios mostly between 40 and 55 sr (average of47{+-}6 sr). Almost clean air masses were observed throughout the measurements of the Beijing campaign.more » These air masses originated from arid desert-steppe-like regions (greater Gobi area).Extinction values usually varied between 100 and300 Mm-1, and the lidar ratios were considerably lower (compared with PRD values) with values mostly from 30 to 45 sr (average of38{+-}7 sr). Gobi dust partly influenced the observations. Unexpectedly low lidar ratios of approximately 25 sr were found for a case of background aerosol with a low optical depth of 0.05. The low lidar ratios are consistent with Mie-scattering calculations applied to ground-based observations of particle size distributions.« less
  • The authors describe in this paper a lidar method using the anti-Stokes rotational lines of N[sub 2] and O[sub 2] Raman spectrum to determine the temperature of the atmosphere up to 30 km. The method uses the variation with the temperature of the envelop of the intensities of the backscattered rotational Raman spectrum, or more precisely the variations of the ratio of the intensities at two close-by wavelengths. For each temperature of the gas, the ratio of the fluxes through two narrow and close-by filters takes a definite value directly related to the temperature. The difficulty of eliminating the near-bymore » contribution of the Mie backscattering was solved by doubling the filters to produce a rejection factor of 10[sub +8] at the central wavelength. The validity of the method was illustrated by comparing a number of temperature profiles obtained simultaneously with radiosonde and by this new Raman lidar. The theoretical calculation of the method led to an analytic calibration function which, once adjusted with a radiosonde, can provide the temperature on successive days of measurement in the height range 50 to 25 km.« less
  • Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering (CARS) measurements have been performed in binary CO2-N2 and ternary CO2-O2-N2 mixtures in a temperature range between 300 and 773 K and pressures from 0.1 to 5 MPa to prove its potential for simultaneous single-shot thermometry and multispecies concentration measurements. In pressurized systems the CO2 component has a strong spectral influence on the pure rotational CARS spectra. Because of this dominance, pure rotational CARS proves to be a sensitive tool to measure in high-pressure combustion systems and the relative CO2-N2 concentration in the lower temperature range simultaneously with the temperature and the relative O2-N2 concentration.more » The evaluation of the spectra utilized a least-sum-squared differences fit of the spectral shape, weighted either constantly or inversely with respect to the normalized signal intensity. The results of the simultaneous temperature and relative CO2-N2 and O2-CO2-N2 concentration measurements provided a good accuracy and precision both in temperature and in concentrations. Because of the strong increase in the relative spectral contribution of CO2 with rising pressure, the precision of the CO2 concentration determination is in general significantly improved toward higher pressures, thus also clearly enhancing the CO2 detectability. The influence of temperature, O2 and CO2 concentration, pressure, and the evaluation techniques employed on both the accuracy and the precision is explained as well as their cross dependencies. The influence and limitations of the approximations used to model the CO2 molecule are discussed.« less
  • The method of measuring atmospheric temperature profiles with differential absorption lidar (DIAL), based on the temperature dependence of oxygen absorption lines in the near-IR, is investigated in detail. Particularly, the influence of Doppler broadening on the Rayleigh-backscattered signal is evaluated, and a correction method for this effect is presented which requires an accurate estimate of the molecular and particle backscatter contributions; this is noted not to be achievable by the usual lidar inversion techniques. Under realistic conditions, resulting errors may be as high as 10 K. First range-resolved measurements using this technique are presented, using a slightly modified DIAL systemmore » originally constructed for water vapor measurements. While much better resolution can certainly be achieved by technical improvements, the errors introduced by the uncertainty of the backscatter contributions will remain and determine the accuracy that can be obtained with this method. 35 refs.« less
  • We describe an operational, self-contained, fully autonomous Raman lidar system that has been developed for unattended, around-the-clock atmospheric profiling of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds. During a 1996 three-week intensive observational period, the system operated during all periods of good weather (339 out of 504 h), including one continuous five-day period. The system is based on a dual-field-of-view design that provides excellent daytime capability without sacrificing nighttime performance. It is fully computer automated and runs unattended following a simple, brief ({approximately}5-min) start-up period. We discuss the theory and design of the system and present detailed analysis of the derivation ofmore » water-vapor profiles from the lidar measurements. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America« less