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Title: Efficiency of a grazing-incidence off-plane grating in the soft-x-ray region

Abstract

Efficiency measurements of a grazing-incidence diffraction grating in the off-plane mount were performed using polarized synchrotron radiation. The grating had 5000 grooves/mm, an effective blaze angle of 14 deg., and was gold coated. The efficiencies in the two polarization orientations (TM and TE) were measured in the 1.5-5.0 nm wavelength range and were compared with the efficiencies calculated using the PCGrate-SX code. The TM and TE efficiencies differ, offering the possibility of performing unique science studies of astrophysical, solar, and laboratory sources by exploiting the polarization sensitivity of the off-plane grating.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20779277
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Optics; Journal Volume: 45; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: DOI: 10.1364/AO.45.001680; (c) 2006 Optical Society of America; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; DIFFRACTION GRATINGS; EFFICIENCY; GOLD; ORIENTATION; POLARIZATION; SENSITIVITY; SOFT X RADIATION; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; WAVELENGTHS; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Seely, J.F., Goray, L.I., Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan, Laming, J.M., Holland, G.E., Flanagan, K.A., Heilmann, R.K., Chang, C.-H., Schattenburg, M.L., and Rasmussen, A.P. Efficiency of a grazing-incidence off-plane grating in the soft-x-ray region. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1364/AO.45.0.
Seely, J.F., Goray, L.I., Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan, Laming, J.M., Holland, G.E., Flanagan, K.A., Heilmann, R.K., Chang, C.-H., Schattenburg, M.L., & Rasmussen, A.P. Efficiency of a grazing-incidence off-plane grating in the soft-x-ray region. United States. doi:10.1364/AO.45.0.
Seely, J.F., Goray, L.I., Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan, Laming, J.M., Holland, G.E., Flanagan, K.A., Heilmann, R.K., Chang, C.-H., Schattenburg, M.L., and Rasmussen, A.P. Fri . "Efficiency of a grazing-incidence off-plane grating in the soft-x-ray region". United States. doi:10.1364/AO.45.0.
@article{osti_20779277,
title = {Efficiency of a grazing-incidence off-plane grating in the soft-x-ray region},
author = {Seely, J.F. and Goray, L.I. and Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan and Laming, J.M. and Holland, G.E. and Flanagan, K.A. and Heilmann, R.K. and Chang, C.-H. and Schattenburg, M.L. and Rasmussen, A.P},
abstractNote = {Efficiency measurements of a grazing-incidence diffraction grating in the off-plane mount were performed using polarized synchrotron radiation. The grating had 5000 grooves/mm, an effective blaze angle of 14 deg., and was gold coated. The efficiencies in the two polarization orientations (TM and TE) were measured in the 1.5-5.0 nm wavelength range and were compared with the efficiencies calculated using the PCGrate-SX code. The TM and TE efficiencies differ, offering the possibility of performing unique science studies of astrophysical, solar, and laboratory sources by exploiting the polarization sensitivity of the off-plane grating.},
doi = {10.1364/AO.45.0},
journal = {Applied Optics},
number = 8,
volume = 45,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 10 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Fri Mar 10 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Efficiency measurements of a grazing-incidence diffraction grating in the off-plane mount were performed using polarized synchrotron radiation. The grating had 5000 grooves/mm, an effective blaze angle of 14 deg., and was gold coated. The efficiencies in the two polarization orientations (TM and TE) were measured in the 1.5-5.0 nm wavelength range and were compared with the efficiencies calculated using the PCGrate-SX code. The TM and TE efficiencies differ, offering the possibility of performing unique science studies of astrophysical, solar, and laboratory sources by exploiting the polarization sensitivity of the off-plane grating.
  • Soft x-ray (20--304--A) astigmatic line shapes were measured in order to evaluate the spatial imaging properties of a Rowland mounted concave grating in grazing incidence. The practicability of coarse 1-D spatial imaging in the soft x-ray region is demonstrated. Spatial resolution equivalent to approx.4 cm at a source distance of 2 m can be achieved with practical parameters (e.g., sensitivity and time resolution) for a fusion diagnostic spectrograph. The results are compared to computer-generated ray tracings and found to be in good agreement. The ray tracing program which models the grazing incidence optics is discussed.
  • Line emission from highly charged ions in the soft x-ray region represents an important diagnostic for high-temperature plasmas. The wavelength region of 10{endash}30 {Angstrom} is occupied by lines from the {ital K}-shell transitions in N through Ne and {ital L}-shell transitions in Ti through Ni. Crystal spectrometers have previously been used to investigate Fe line radiation under well controlled conditions using the LLNL electron beam ion trap facility in this wavelength region. To complement this work we have instituted a grazing-incidence spectrometer with a variable line-spaced, concave grating and a flat field of focus which is suited for a multichannelmore » detector. Simultaneous observations of the Ne-like Fe{sup 16+}n=3{r_arrow}2 transitions were made with this instrument and a flat-crystal spectrometer in order to establish the linear polarization of the Fe XVII lines. We present a description of the grating spectrometer and discuss its performance in comparison with Rowland circle based grazing incidence instruments. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}« less
  • A W/C multilayer laminar-type holographic grating was fabricated and its diffraction efficiency was evaluated in the 1-8 keV region. Taking advantage of its high diffraction efficiency a monochromator equipped with a multilayer varied-line-spacing plane grating was designed. The throughput of the monochromator based on the experimental diffraction efficiency of the multilayer grating and resolving power were calculated in comparison with those of a monochromator equipped with a Au coated grating.