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Title: Beam deflection by plasma grid filter current in the negative-ion source for JT-60U neutral beam injection system

Abstract

In the JT-60U negative-ion-based neutral beam injection system, the effect of negative ion and electron deflection by the plasma grid (PG) magnetic filter was studied. After a long-pulse operation of up to 19 s, a local melting was observed on the beamline near the ion source, facing the electron drift side of the PG magnetic field. It is confirmed that the experimental deflection of the negative-ion beam agrees well with the three-dimensional beam simulation result by taking account of the measured magnetic field. By using the code, it is found that some stripped electrons produced in the first acceleration gap pass through the down pitch of the multiple apertures in the next stage of acceleration grids, and then collide on the beamline around the melted location.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20779014
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 77; Journal Issue: 3; Conference: 11. international conference on ion sources, Caen (France), 12-16 Sep 2005; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2170088; (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCELERATION; ANIONS; APERTURES; BEAM DYNAMICS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; CURRENTS; ELECTRON DRIFT; ELECTRONS; HEATING; ION BEAMS; ION SOURCES; JT-60U TOKAMAK; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MAGNETIC FILTERS; MELTING; PLASMA; PLASMA BEAM INJECTION; PULSES; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS

Citation Formats

Umeda, N., Ikeda, Y., Hanada, M., Inoue, T., Kawai, M., Kazawa, M., Komata, M., Mogaki, K., and Ohga, T.. Beam deflection by plasma grid filter current in the negative-ion source for JT-60U neutral beam injection system. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2170088.
Umeda, N., Ikeda, Y., Hanada, M., Inoue, T., Kawai, M., Kazawa, M., Komata, M., Mogaki, K., & Ohga, T.. Beam deflection by plasma grid filter current in the negative-ion source for JT-60U neutral beam injection system. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2170088.
Umeda, N., Ikeda, Y., Hanada, M., Inoue, T., Kawai, M., Kazawa, M., Komata, M., Mogaki, K., and Ohga, T.. Wed . "Beam deflection by plasma grid filter current in the negative-ion source for JT-60U neutral beam injection system". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2170088.
@article{osti_20779014,
title = {Beam deflection by plasma grid filter current in the negative-ion source for JT-60U neutral beam injection system},
author = {Umeda, N. and Ikeda, Y. and Hanada, M. and Inoue, T. and Kawai, M. and Kazawa, M. and Komata, M. and Mogaki, K. and Ohga, T.},
abstractNote = {In the JT-60U negative-ion-based neutral beam injection system, the effect of negative ion and electron deflection by the plasma grid (PG) magnetic filter was studied. After a long-pulse operation of up to 19 s, a local melting was observed on the beamline near the ion source, facing the electron drift side of the PG magnetic field. It is confirmed that the experimental deflection of the negative-ion beam agrees well with the three-dimensional beam simulation result by taking account of the measured magnetic field. By using the code, it is found that some stripped electrons produced in the first acceleration gap pass through the down pitch of the multiple apertures in the next stage of acceleration grids, and then collide on the beamline around the melted location.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2170088},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 3,
volume = 77,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • The 500-keV negative-ion based neutral beam injector for JT-60U started operation in 1996. The beam power has been increased gradually through optimizing operation parameters of the ion sources and conquering many troubles in the ion source and power supplies caused by a high voltage break-down in the accelerator. However, some issues remain to be solved concerning the ion source for increasing further the beam power and the beam energy. The most serious issue of them is non-uniformity of source plasma in the arc chamber. Various countermeasures have been implemented to improve the non-uniformity. Some of those countermeasures have been foundmore » to be partially effective in reducing the non-uniformity of the source plasma, and as the result the ion source, so far, has accelerated negative-ion beams of 17.4A at 403keV with deuterium and 20A at 360keV with hydrogen against the goal of 22A at 500keV. The neutral beam injection power into the plasma has reached 5.8MW at 400keV with deuterium. Further efforts to reach the target of 10MW at 500keV have been continued.« less
  • The temperature control system of the large-size plasma grid has been developed to realize the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA. By using this prototype system for the JT-60SA ion source, 15 A negative ions has been sustained for 100 s for the first time, which is three times longer than that obtained in JT-60U. In this system, a high-temperature fluorinated fluid with a high boiling point of 270 degree Celsius is circulated in the cooling channels of the plasma grids (PG) where a cesium (Cs) coverage is formed to enhance the negative ion production. Because themore » PG temperature control had been applied to only 10% of the extraction area previously, the prototype PG with the full extraction area (110 cm × 45 cm) was developed to increase the negative ion current in this time. In the preliminary results of long pulse productions of high-current negative ions at a Cs conditioning phase, the negative ion production was gradually degraded in the last half of 100 s pulse where the temperature of an arc chamber wall was not saturated. From the spectroscopic measurements, it was found that the Cs flux released from the wall might affect to the negative ion production, which implied the wall temperature should be kept low to control the Cs flux to the PG for the long-pulse high-current production. The obtained results of long-pulse production and the PG temperature control method contributes the design of the ITER ion source.« less
  • The positive-ion based neutral beam injection (NBI) system for JT-60, which consists of 14 beamline units and has a beam energy of 70 to 100 keV, started operation in 1986 with hydrogen beams and injected a neutral beam power of 27 MW at 75 keV into the JT-60 plasma. In 1991, the NBI system was modified to be able to handle deuterium beams as part of the JT-60 upgrade modification. After executing some research and developments, deuterium beams of 40 MW at 95 keV were injected in 1996. As a result, NBI has contributed to the achievement of the highestmore » performance plasmas, a DT-equivalent fusion power gain of 1.25 and a fusion triple product of 1.55 x 10{sup 21} keVs/m{sup 3}, in the world on JT-60U.« less
  • Rapid frequency sweeping modes observed in reversed magnetic shear (RS) plasmas on the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak 60 Upgrade (JT-60U) [H. Ninomiya and the JT-60 Team, Phys. Fluids B 4, 2070 (1992)] have been identified as reversed-shear-induced Alfven eigenmodes (RSAEs), which are ideal magnetohydrodynamic Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) localized to the region of minimum safety factor, q{sub min}, and are excited by negative-ion-based neutral beam injection. The chirping and subsequent saturation of the mode frequency are consistent with theoretical predictions for the transition from RSAEs to toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs). The previously observed rapid frequency sweeping modes in ionmore » cyclotron wave heated plasmas in JT-60U can also be similarly explained. The observed AE amplitude is largest during the transition from RSAEs to TAEs, and fast ion loss is observed when the AE amplitude is largest at this transition. It is preferable to operate outside the transition range of q{sub min}, e.g., 2.4<q{sub min}<2.7 for the n=1 AE to avoid substantial fast ion loss in RS plasmas.« less
  • The JT-60U negative ion source has been designed to produce high current beams of 22 A through grids of 1080 apertures (five segments with nine rows of 24 apertures). One of the key issues is to steer such a high current beam through the multiaperture grids in order to focus the overall beam envelope because the beamlet-beamlet interaction may deflect the outer beamlets outward due to unbalanced space charge repulsion. To clarify the beam deflection in the JT-60U negative ion source, the beamlet trajectory in a multiaperture ion source was calculated by a three-dimensional simulation code. The measured angles ofmore » the outmost beamlets were in agreement with the calculated results where space charge of the beamlets was taken into account. It is noticed that the deflection of the outermost beamlet due to the beamlet-beamlet interaction is saturated at 5.2 mrad outward for beamlets more than ten.« less