skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Lowering the ignition voltage by the dual microhollow cathode configuration for multichannel flat panel lamp

Abstract

We have developed a dual microhollow cathode configuration, employing one power supply circuit with a resistor that is suitable for lamp starting without additional power supplier. We also investigated their electrical characteristics and photo images, varying the applied voltage. The electrical and optical measurements showed that the discharge passed through four distinct stages: no discharges, the first microhollow cathode discharges, the both of the first and second microhollow cathode discharges, and finally the main discharge. As a result, the V{sub s} and E{sub s}/p of a dual microhollow configuration were lower by a factor of about 2 than those of a diode at 40 Torr. We have also observed that the parallel operation can be possible with a single resistor in nine channels flat panel lamp.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Metallurgical System Engineering, B227, Yonsei University, 134, Shin-chon-dong, Seo-dae-moon-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20778846
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: 12; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2189914; (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CATHODES; CONFIGURATION; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; GLOW DISCHARGES; IGNITION; IMAGES; LIGHT BULBS; PANELS; PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS; RESISTORS; THERMIONIC DIODES

Citation Formats

Lee, Tae Il, Park, Ki Wan, Lee, Sung Won, and Baik, Hong Koo. Lowering the ignition voltage by the dual microhollow cathode configuration for multichannel flat panel lamp. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2189914.
Lee, Tae Il, Park, Ki Wan, Lee, Sung Won, & Baik, Hong Koo. Lowering the ignition voltage by the dual microhollow cathode configuration for multichannel flat panel lamp. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2189914.
Lee, Tae Il, Park, Ki Wan, Lee, Sung Won, and Baik, Hong Koo. Mon . "Lowering the ignition voltage by the dual microhollow cathode configuration for multichannel flat panel lamp". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2189914.
@article{osti_20778846,
title = {Lowering the ignition voltage by the dual microhollow cathode configuration for multichannel flat panel lamp},
author = {Lee, Tae Il and Park, Ki Wan and Lee, Sung Won and Baik, Hong Koo},
abstractNote = {We have developed a dual microhollow cathode configuration, employing one power supply circuit with a resistor that is suitable for lamp starting without additional power supplier. We also investigated their electrical characteristics and photo images, varying the applied voltage. The electrical and optical measurements showed that the discharge passed through four distinct stages: no discharges, the first microhollow cathode discharges, the both of the first and second microhollow cathode discharges, and finally the main discharge. As a result, the V{sub s} and E{sub s}/p of a dual microhollow configuration were lower by a factor of about 2 than those of a diode at 40 Torr. We have also observed that the parallel operation can be possible with a single resistor in nine channels flat panel lamp.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2189914},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 12,
volume = 88,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 20 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Mon Mar 20 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • This paper describes how to light several microdischarges in parallel without having to individually ballast each one. The V-I curve of a microhollow cathode discharge is characterized by a constant voltage in the normal glow regime because the plasma is able to spread over the cathode surface area to provide the additional secondary electrons needed. If one limits the cathode surface area, the V-I characteristic can be forced into an abnormal glow regime in which the operating voltage must increase with the current. It is then possible to light several microdischarges mounted in parallel without ballasting them individually.
  • Analysis of detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is an important component of the investigation of imaging performance for flat-panel detectors (FPDs). Conventional descriptions of DQE are limited, however, in that they take no account of anatomical noise (i.e., image fluctuations caused by overlying anatomy), even though such noise can be the most significant limitation to detectability, often outweighing quantum or electronic noise. We incorporate anatomical noise in experimental and theoretical descriptions of the 'generalized DQE' by including a spatial-frequency-dependent noise-power term, S{sub B}, corresponding to background anatomical fluctuations. Cascaded systems analysis (CSA) of the generalized DQE reveals tradeoffs between anatomical noisemore » and the factors that govern quantum noise. We extend such analysis to dual-energy (DE) imaging, in which the overlying anatomical structure is selectively removed in image reconstructions by combining projections acquired at low and high kVp. The effectiveness of DE imaging in removing anatomical noise is quantified by measurement of S{sub B} in an anthropomorphic phantom. Combining the generalized DQE with an idealized task function to yield the detectability index, we show that anatomical noise dramatically influences task-based performance, system design, and optimization. For the case of radiography, the analysis resolves a fundamental and illustrative quandary: The effect of kVp on imaging performance, which is poorly described by conventional DQE analysis but is clarified by consideration of the generalized DQE. For the case of DE imaging, extension of a generalized CSA methodology reveals a potentially powerful guide to system optimization through the optimal selection of the tissue cancellation parameter. Generalized task-based analysis for DE imaging shows an improvement in the detectability index by more than a factor of 2 compared to conventional radiography for idealized detection tasks.« less
  • A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high-energy beam filtration, dual-gain operation and noise reduction on dual-energy images using a digital flat-panel detector. High-energy beam filtration increases image contrast through greater beam separation and tends to reduce total radiation exposure and dose per image pair. It is also possible to reduce dual-energy image noise by acquiring low and high-energy images at two different detector gains. In addition, dual-energy noise reduction algorithms can further reduce image noise. The cumulative effect of these techniques applied in series was investigated in this study. The contrast from a small thickness ofmore » calcium was simulated over a step phantom of tissue equivalent material with a CsI phosphor as the image detector. The dual-energy contrast-to-noise ratio was calculated using values of energy absorption and energy variance. A figure-of-merit (FOM) was calculated from dual-energy contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and patient effective dose estimated from values of entrance exposure. Filter atomic numbers in the range of 1-100 were considered with thicknesses ranging from 0-2500 mg/cm{sup 2}. The simulation examined combinations of the above techniques which maximized the FOM. The application of a filter increased image contrast by as much as 45%. Near maximal increases were seen for filter atomic numbers in the range of 40-60 and 85-100 with masses above 750 mg/cm{sup 2}. Increasing filter thickness beyond 1000 mg/cm{sup 2} increased tube loading without further significant contrast enhancement. No additional FOM improvements were seen with dual gain before or after the application of any noise reduction algorithm. Narrow beam experiments were carried out to verify predictions. The measured FOM increased by more than a factor of 3.5 for a silver filter thickness of 800 {mu}m, equal energy weighting and application of a noise clipping algorithm. The main limitation of dynamic high-energy filtration is increased tube loading. The results of this study can be used to help develop an optimal dual-energy imaging system.« less
  • The feasibility of a real-time dual-energy imaging technique with dynamic filtration using a flat panel detector for quantifying coronary arterial calcium was evaluated. In this technique, the x-ray beam was switched at 15 Hz between 60 kVp and 120 kVp with the 120 kVp beam having an additional 0.8 mm silver filter. The performance of the dynamic filtration technique was compared with a static filtration technique (4 mm Al+0.2 mm Cu for both beams). The ability to quantify calcium mass was evaluated using calcified arterial vessel phantoms with 20-230 mg of hydroxylapatite. The vessel phantoms were imaged over a Lucitemore » phantom and then an anthropomorphic chest phantom. The total thickness of Lucite phantom ranges from 13.5-26.5 cm to simulate patient thickness of 16-32 cm. The calcium mass was measured using a densitometric technique. The effective dose to patient was estimated from the measured entrance exposure. The effects of patient thickness on contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), effective dose, and the precision of calcium mass quantification (i.e., the frame to frame variability) were studied. The effects of misregistration artifacts were also measured by shifting the vessel phantoms manually between low- and high-energy images. The results show that, with the same detector signal level, the dynamic filtration technique produced 70% higher calcium contrast-to-noise ratio with only 4% increase in patient dose as compared to the static filtration technique. At the same time, x-ray tube loading increased by 30% with dynamic filtration. The minimum detectability of calcium with anatomical background was measured to be 34 mg of hydroxyapatite. The precision in calcium mass measurement, determined from 16 repeated dual-energy images, ranges from 13 mg to 41 mg when the patient thickness increased from 16 to 32 cm. The CNR was found to decrease with the patient thickness linearly at a rate of (-7%/cm). The anatomic background produced measurement root-mean-square (RMS) errors of 13 mg and 18 mg when the vessel phantoms were imaged over a uniform (over the rib) and nonuniform (across the edge of rib) bone background, respectively. Misregistration artifacts due to motions of up to 1.0 mm between the low- and high-energy images introduce RMS error of less than 4.3 mg, which is much smaller than the frame to frame variability and the measurement error due to anatomic background. The effective dose ranged from 1.1 to 6.6 {mu}Sv for each dual-energy image, depending on patient thickness. The study shows that real-time dual-energy imaging can potentially be used as a low dose technique for quantifying coronary arterial calcium.« less
  • The continuing research and further development in flat panel detector technology have led to its integration into more and more medical x-ray systems for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging, such as fixed or mobile C arms. Besides the obvious advantages of flat panel detectors, like the slim design and the resulting optimum accessibility to the patient, their success is primarily a product of the image quality that can be achieved. The benefits in the physical and performance-related features as opposed to conventional image intensifier systems (e.g., distortion-free reproduction of imaging information or almost linear signal response over a largemore » dynamic range) can be fully exploited, however, only if the raw detector images are correctly calibrated and postprocessed. Previous procedures for processing raw data contain idealizations that, in the real world, lead to artifacts or losses in image quality. Thus, for example, temperature dependencies or changes in beam geometry, as can occur with mobile C arm systems, have not been taken into account up to this time. Additionally, adverse characteristics such as image lag or aging effects have to be compensated to attain the best possible image quality. In this article a procedure is presented that takes into account the important dependencies of the individual pixel sensitivity of flat panel detectors used in 2D or 3D imaging and simultaneously minimizes the work required for an extensive recalibration. It is suitable for conventional detectors with only one gain mode as well as for the detectors specially developed for 3D imaging with dual gain read-out technology.« less