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Title: Direct Excitation of the Forbidden Clock Transition in Neutral {sup 174}Yb Atoms Confined to an Optical Lattice

Abstract

We report direct single-laser excitation of the strictly forbidden (6s{sup 2}){sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible}(6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition in {sup 174}Yb atoms confined to a 1D optical lattice. A small ({approx}1.2 mT) static magnetic field was used to induce a nonzero electric dipole transition probability between the clock states at 578.42 nm. Narrow resonance linewidths of 20 Hz (FWHM) with high contrast were observed, demonstrating a resonance quality factor of 2.6x10{sup 13}. The previously unknown ac Stark shift-canceling (magic) wavelength was determined to be 759.35{+-}0.02 nm. This method for using the metrologically superior even isotope can be easily implemented in current Yb and Sr lattice clocks and can create new clock possibilities in other alkaline-earth-like atoms such as Mg and Ca.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)
  2. (Russian Federation) and Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20778726
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review Letters; Journal Volume: 96; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.083002; (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMIC CLOCKS; ATOMS; COOLING; E1-TRANSITIONS; EXCITATION; LASERS; LIFETIME; LINE WIDTHS; MAGNETIC FIELDS; PROBABILITY; QUALITY FACTOR; RESONANCE; STARK EFFECT; WAVELENGTHS; YTTERBIUM 174

Citation Formats

Barber, Z.W., Hoyt, C.W., Oates, C.W., Hollberg, L., Taichenachev, A.V., Yudin, V.I., and Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090. Direct Excitation of the Forbidden Clock Transition in Neutral {sup 174}Yb Atoms Confined to an Optical Lattice. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.96.0.
Barber, Z.W., Hoyt, C.W., Oates, C.W., Hollberg, L., Taichenachev, A.V., Yudin, V.I., & Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090. Direct Excitation of the Forbidden Clock Transition in Neutral {sup 174}Yb Atoms Confined to an Optical Lattice. United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.96.0.
Barber, Z.W., Hoyt, C.W., Oates, C.W., Hollberg, L., Taichenachev, A.V., Yudin, V.I., and Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090. Fri . "Direct Excitation of the Forbidden Clock Transition in Neutral {sup 174}Yb Atoms Confined to an Optical Lattice". United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.96.0.
@article{osti_20778726,
title = {Direct Excitation of the Forbidden Clock Transition in Neutral {sup 174}Yb Atoms Confined to an Optical Lattice},
author = {Barber, Z.W. and Hoyt, C.W. and Oates, C.W. and Hollberg, L. and Taichenachev, A.V. and Yudin, V.I. and Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090},
abstractNote = {We report direct single-laser excitation of the strictly forbidden (6s{sup 2}){sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible}(6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition in {sup 174}Yb atoms confined to a 1D optical lattice. A small ({approx}1.2 mT) static magnetic field was used to induce a nonzero electric dipole transition probability between the clock states at 578.42 nm. Narrow resonance linewidths of 20 Hz (FWHM) with high contrast were observed, demonstrating a resonance quality factor of 2.6x10{sup 13}. The previously unknown ac Stark shift-canceling (magic) wavelength was determined to be 759.35{+-}0.02 nm. This method for using the metrologically superior even isotope can be easily implemented in current Yb and Sr lattice clocks and can create new clock possibilities in other alkaline-earth-like atoms such as Mg and Ca.},
doi = {10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.96.0},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 8,
volume = 96,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 03 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Fri Mar 03 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • We report calculations assessing the ultimate precision of an atomic clock based on the 578 nm 6 {sup 1}S{sub 0}{yields}6 {sup 3}P{sub 0} transition in Yb atoms confined in an optical lattice trap. We find that this transition has a natural linewidth less than 10 mHz in the odd Yb isotopes, caused by hyperfine coupling. The shift in this transition due to the trapping light acting through the lowest order ac polarizability is found to become zero at the magic trap wavelength of about 752 nm. The effects of Rayleigh scattering, multipole polarizabilities, vector polarizability, and hyperfine induced electronic magneticmore » moments can all be held below 1 mHz (about one part in 10{sup 18}). In the case of the hyperpolarizability, however, larger shifts due to nearly resonant terms cannot be ruled out without an accurate measurement of the magic wavelength.« less
  • We study the trap depth requirement for the realization of an optical clock using atoms confined in a lattice. We show that site-to-site tunneling leads to a residual sensitivity to the atom dynamics hence requiring large depths [(50-100)E{sub r} for Sr] to avoid any frequency shift or line broadening of the atomic transition at the 10{sup -17}-10{sup -18} level. Such large depths and the corresponding laser power may, however, lead to difficulties (e.g., higher-order light shifts, two-photon ionization, technical difficulties) and therefore one would like to operate the clock in much shallower traps. To circumvent this problem we propose themore » use of an accelerated lattice. Acceleration lifts the degeneracy between adjacents potential wells which strongly inhibits tunneling. We show that using the Earth's gravity, much shallower traps (down to 5E{sub r} for Sr) can be used for the same accuracy goal.« less
  • We report the direct excitation of the highly forbidden (6s{sup 2}){sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible}(6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 0} optical transition in two odd isotopes of neutral ytterbium. As the excitation laser frequency is scanned, absorption is detected by monitoring the depletion from an atomic cloud at {approx}70 {mu}K in a magneto-optical trap. The measured frequency in {sup 171}Yb (F=1/2) is 518 295 836 591.6{+-}4.4 kHz. The measured frequency in {sup 173}Yb (F=5/2) is 518 294 576 847.6{+-}4.4 kHz. Measurements are made with a femtosecond-laser frequency comb calibrated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology cesium fountain clock and represent nearly a 10{supmore » 6}-fold reduction in uncertainty. The natural linewidth of these J=0 to J=0 transitions is calculated to be {approx}10 mHz, making them well suited to support a new generation of optical atomic clocks based on confinement in an optical lattice.« less
  • We report direct laser spectroscopy of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition at 265.6 nm in fermionic isotopes of neutral mercury in a magneto-optical trap. Measurements of the frequency against the LNE-SYRTE primary reference using an optical frequency comb yield 1 128 575 290 808.4{+-}5.6 kHz in {sup 199}Hg and 1 128 569 561 139.6{+-}5.3 kHz in {sup 201}Hg. The uncertainty, allowed by the observation of the Doppler-free recoil doublet, is 4 orders of magnitude lower than previous indirect determinations. Mercury is a promising candidate for future optical lattice clocks due to its low sensitivity to blackbody radiation.