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Title: Measurements of TiO{sub x} stress induced on InP/InGaAs/InGaAsP quantum well heterostructures

Abstract

Measurements of stress induced by TiO{sub x} layers on single quantum well InP based heterostructure are presented. Strain characterization has been performed by photoluminescence (PL) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We present a comparison of the stress induced by TiO{sub x} and SiO{sub 2} layers which are commonly used as masking material for the quantum well intermixing process. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and PL revealed that TiO{sub 2} is creating a stress field in the top layers of the heterostructure, with a dependence on temperature and stressor thickness. A hysteresis phenomenon of the Raman shift has also been observed after measurements at low temperature (below 300 K) which shows that the stress created by TiO{sub x} exceeds the elastic limit of InP. On the other hand, there is no evidence that SiO{sub 2} is inducing stress. Rapid thermal annealing of samples covered with titanium oxide results in improvement of the thermal stability.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Centre de recherche en Nanofabrication et en Nanocaracterisation, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boulevard de l'Universite Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada)
  2. (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20777199
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, International Journal Devoted to Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films; Journal Volume: 24; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1116/1.2172925; (c) 2006 American Vacuum Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ANNEALING; GALLIUM ARSENIDES; INDIUM PHOSPHIDES; LAYERS; MASKING; PHOTOLUMINESCENCE; QUANTUM WELLS; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; SILICON OXIDES; STRAINS; STRESSES; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0065-0273 K; TITANIUM OXIDES

Citation Formats

Francois, A., Aimez, V., Beauvais, J., Barba, D., and INRS-EMT, 1650 Boulevard Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2. Measurements of TiO{sub x} stress induced on InP/InGaAs/InGaAsP quantum well heterostructures. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1116/1.2172925.
Francois, A., Aimez, V., Beauvais, J., Barba, D., & INRS-EMT, 1650 Boulevard Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2. Measurements of TiO{sub x} stress induced on InP/InGaAs/InGaAsP quantum well heterostructures. United States. doi:10.1116/1.2172925.
Francois, A., Aimez, V., Beauvais, J., Barba, D., and INRS-EMT, 1650 Boulevard Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2. 2006. "Measurements of TiO{sub x} stress induced on InP/InGaAs/InGaAsP quantum well heterostructures". United States. doi:10.1116/1.2172925.
@article{osti_20777199,
title = {Measurements of TiO{sub x} stress induced on InP/InGaAs/InGaAsP quantum well heterostructures},
author = {Francois, A. and Aimez, V. and Beauvais, J. and Barba, D. and INRS-EMT, 1650 Boulevard Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2},
abstractNote = {Measurements of stress induced by TiO{sub x} layers on single quantum well InP based heterostructure are presented. Strain characterization has been performed by photoluminescence (PL) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We present a comparison of the stress induced by TiO{sub x} and SiO{sub 2} layers which are commonly used as masking material for the quantum well intermixing process. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and PL revealed that TiO{sub 2} is creating a stress field in the top layers of the heterostructure, with a dependence on temperature and stressor thickness. A hysteresis phenomenon of the Raman shift has also been observed after measurements at low temperature (below 300 K) which shows that the stress created by TiO{sub x} exceeds the elastic limit of InP. On the other hand, there is no evidence that SiO{sub 2} is inducing stress. Rapid thermal annealing of samples covered with titanium oxide results in improvement of the thermal stability.},
doi = {10.1116/1.2172925},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, International Journal Devoted to Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films},
number = 3,
volume = 24,
place = {United States},
year = 2006,
month = 5
}
  • Quantum well intermixing was studied on InP/InGaAs/InGaAsP heterostructures under stress induced by a TiO{sub x} surface stressor. Results provide a comparison of thermal emission wavelength shift and effective emission wavelength shift for samples intermixed with and without applied stress. It is shown that TiO{sub x} decreases the measured thermal shift depending on the amplitude of the induced stress. It is also shown that the diffusion of point defects created during ion implantation prior to TiO{sub x} stressor deposition is significantly enhanced. This results in an increase of the effective wavelength shift by up to 300%.
  • Radiation from a 193 nm ArF laser was investigated to modify surface properties of InGaAs/InGaAsP quantum well (QW) heterostructures and introduce defects required to enhance intermixing during the annealing process. A top 200 nm thick sacrificial layer of InP served as a reservoir for laser generated defects. The irradiation with up to 90 pulses at 65-150 mJ/cm{sup 2} allowed to generate an array of 1.2x1 mm{sup 2} sites of QW intermixed material, with bandgap energy blueshifted up to 107 nm. We discuss the mechanism and advantages of this approach for postgrowth wafer level fabrication of multibandgap QW material.
  • Record low threshold current densities have been achieved in InGaAs/InGaAsP step graded index separate confinement (GRIN SCH) quantum well lasers emitting close to 1.50 {mu}m. Single (SQW) and multiple (MQW) quantum well lasers with 300--500 {mu}m long cavities had threshold current densities as low as 1.9 and 0.9 kA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. In longer cavity devices, threshold current densities as low as 750 and 450 A/cm{sup 2} have been measured in SQW and MQW lasers, respectively. These lasers show no significant change in threshold current density with well thicknesses varying from 5 to 25 nm which demonstrate the effectiveness of themore » graded index in the carrier capture process. Buried-heterostructure GRIN SCH SQW and MQW with active layer widths of {similar to}2 {mu}m show threshold currents of 15 and 9 mA, respectively.« less
  • The structure and properties of a high performance InGaAs/InGaAsP separate confinement heterostructure multiple quantum well laser operating at 1.54 ..mu..m are described. The laser has low threshold current (18 mA), high quantum efficiency (22% facet), high cw output power (42 mW/facet), and weak dependence of the threshold currents and efficiencies on cavity length.
  • We demonstrate a distributed feedback laser with an integrated intracavity phase modulator based on advanced quantum well technology with applications to mode control, mode switching, and fast frequency modulation.