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Title: Friction and Diffusion of Matter-Wave Bright Solitons

Abstract

We consider the motion of a matter-wave bright soliton under the influence of a cloud of thermal particles. In the ideal one-dimensional system, the scattering process of the quasiparticles with the soliton is reflectionless; however, the quasiparticles acquire a phase shift. In the realistic system of a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a tight waveguide trap, the transverse degrees of freedom generate an extra nonlinearity in the system which gives rise to finite reflection and leads to dissipative motion of the soliton. We calculate the velocity and temperature-dependent frictional force and diffusion coefficient of a matter-wave bright soliton immersed in a thermal cloud.

Authors:
;  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [2]
  1. Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)
  2. (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20776966
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review Letters; Journal Volume: 96; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.030406; (c) 2006 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATION; DEGREES OF FREEDOM; DIFFUSION; FRICTION; MATTER; NONLINEAR PROBLEMS; ONE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; PHASE SHIFT; REFLECTION; SCATTERING; SOLITONS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; WAVEGUIDES

Citation Formats

Sinha, Subhasis, Brand, Joachim, Cherny, Alexander Yu., Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980, Dubna, Kovrizhin, Dmitry, and RRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow. Friction and Diffusion of Matter-Wave Bright Solitons. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.030406.
Sinha, Subhasis, Brand, Joachim, Cherny, Alexander Yu., Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980, Dubna, Kovrizhin, Dmitry, & RRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow. Friction and Diffusion of Matter-Wave Bright Solitons. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.030406.
Sinha, Subhasis, Brand, Joachim, Cherny, Alexander Yu., Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980, Dubna, Kovrizhin, Dmitry, and RRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow. Fri . "Friction and Diffusion of Matter-Wave Bright Solitons". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.030406.
@article{osti_20776966,
title = {Friction and Diffusion of Matter-Wave Bright Solitons},
author = {Sinha, Subhasis and Brand, Joachim and Cherny, Alexander Yu. and Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980, Dubna and Kovrizhin, Dmitry and RRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow},
abstractNote = {We consider the motion of a matter-wave bright soliton under the influence of a cloud of thermal particles. In the ideal one-dimensional system, the scattering process of the quasiparticles with the soliton is reflectionless; however, the quasiparticles acquire a phase shift. In the realistic system of a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a tight waveguide trap, the transverse degrees of freedom generate an extra nonlinearity in the system which gives rise to finite reflection and leads to dissipative motion of the soliton. We calculate the velocity and temperature-dependent frictional force and diffusion coefficient of a matter-wave bright soliton immersed in a thermal cloud.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.030406},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 3,
volume = 96,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 27 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Fri Jan 27 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Motivated by the recent experimental achievements in the work with Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), we consider bright matter-wave solitons, in the presence of a parabolic magnetic trap and a spatially periodic optical lattice (OL), in the attractive BEC. We examine pinned states of the soliton and their stability by means of perturbation theory. The analytical predictions are found to be in good agreement with numerical simulations. We then explore possibilities to use a time-modulated OL as a means of stopping and trapping a moving soliton, and of transferring an initially stationary soliton to a prescribed position by a moving OL. Wemore » also study the emission of radiation from the soliton moving across the combined magnetic trap and OL. We find that the soliton moves freely (without radiation) across a weak lattice, but suffers strong loss in deeper OLs.« less
  • We observe bright matter-wave solitons form during the collapse of {sup 85}Rb condensates in a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic trap. The collapse is induced by using a Feshbach resonance to suddenly switch the atomic interactions from repulsive to attractive. Remnant condensates containing several times the critical number of atoms for the onset of instability are observed to survive the collapse. Under these conditions a highly robust configuration of 3D solitons forms such that each soliton satisfies the condition for stability and neighboring solitons exhibit repulsive interactions.
  • The Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which describes the dynamics of a one-dimensional uniformly feeded attractive Bose-Einstein condensate in an expulsive potential of arbitrary harmonic shape -a{sub 2}x{sup 2}+a{sub 1}x, is solved analytically following the inverse scattering transform method. Within this approach, bright-matter waves are obtained as exact envelope-soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a complex harmonic potential. The envelope shapes mimic double-lump pulses of unequal amplitudes symmetric with respect to the potential maximum, moving simultaneously at nonconstant accelerations with amplitudes that vary in time.
  • Bright-soliton train creation and evolution in a Bose-Einstein condensate is simulated numerically using the experimental conditions of K. E. Strecker et al. [Nature 417, 150 (2002)] as a starting point. We identify the controlling factors that dictate soliton number, phase imprinting, and stability. Reliable production of multiple phase-engineered condensed-matter pulses can have practical applications to future nonlinear atom optics experiments, which we illustrate with an example of colinear scattering between repulsive solitons.
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