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Title: Phase diagram of neutral quark matter: The effect of neutrino trapping

Abstract

We study the effect of neutrino trapping on the phase diagram of dense, locally neutral three-flavor quark matter within the framework of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In the analysis, dynamically generated quark masses are taken into account self-consistently. The phase diagrams in the plane of temperature and quark chemical potential, as well as in the plane of temperature and lepton-number chemical potential are presented. We show that neutrino trapping favors two-flavor color superconductivity and disfavors the color-flavor-locked phase at intermediate densities of matter. At the same time, the location of the critical line separating the two-flavor color-superconducting phase and the normal phase of quark matter is little affected by the presence of neutrinos. The implications of these results for the evolution of protoneutron stars are briefly discussed.

Authors:
;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3]
  1. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany)
  2. Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)
  3. Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20776667
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review. D, Particles Fields; Journal Volume: 73; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.73.034025; (c) 2006 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; COLOR MODEL; FLAVOR MODEL; LEPTON NUMBER; NEUTRINOS; PHASE DIAGRAMS; POTENTIALS; QUARK MATTER; QUARKS; REST MASS; SUPERCONDUCTIVITY; TRAPPING

Citation Formats

Ruester, Stefan B., Rischke, Dirk H., Werth, Verena, Buballa, Michael, and Shovkovy, Igor A. Phase diagram of neutral quark matter: The effect of neutrino trapping. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.73.034025.
Ruester, Stefan B., Rischke, Dirk H., Werth, Verena, Buballa, Michael, & Shovkovy, Igor A. Phase diagram of neutral quark matter: The effect of neutrino trapping. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.73.034025.
Ruester, Stefan B., Rischke, Dirk H., Werth, Verena, Buballa, Michael, and Shovkovy, Igor A. Wed . "Phase diagram of neutral quark matter: The effect of neutrino trapping". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.73.034025.
@article{osti_20776667,
title = {Phase diagram of neutral quark matter: The effect of neutrino trapping},
author = {Ruester, Stefan B. and Rischke, Dirk H. and Werth, Verena and Buballa, Michael and Shovkovy, Igor A.},
abstractNote = {We study the effect of neutrino trapping on the phase diagram of dense, locally neutral three-flavor quark matter within the framework of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In the analysis, dynamically generated quark masses are taken into account self-consistently. The phase diagrams in the plane of temperature and quark chemical potential, as well as in the plane of temperature and lepton-number chemical potential are presented. We show that neutrino trapping favors two-flavor color superconductivity and disfavors the color-flavor-locked phase at intermediate densities of matter. At the same time, the location of the critical line separating the two-flavor color-superconducting phase and the normal phase of quark matter is little affected by the presence of neutrinos. The implications of these results for the evolution of protoneutron stars are briefly discussed.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.73.034025},
journal = {Physical Review. D, Particles Fields},
number = 3,
volume = 73,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • We study the phase diagram of dense, locally neutral three-flavor quark matter within the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In the analysis, dynamically generated quark masses are taken into account self-consistently. The phase diagram in the plane of temperature and quark chemical potential is presented. The results for two qualitatively different regimes, intermediate and strong diquark coupling strength, are presented. It is shown that the role of gapless phases diminishes with increasing diquark coupling strength.
  • We consider the phase diagram of two-flavor quark matter under neutron star constraints for two nonlocal, covariant quark models within the mean-field approximation. In the first case (Model I) the nonlocality arises from the regularization procedure, motivated by the instanton liquid model, whereas in the second one (Model II) a separable approximation of the one-gluon exchange interaction is applied. We find that Model II predicts a larger quark mass gap and a chiral symmetry breaking (CSB) phase transition line which extends 15-20% further into the phase diagram spanned by temperature (T) and chemical potential ({mu}). The corresponding critical temperature atmore » {mu}=0, T{sub c}(0){approx_equal}140 MeV, is in better accordance to recent lattice QCD results than the prediction of the standard local NJL model, which exceeds 200 MeV. For both Model I and Model II we have considered various coupling strengths in the scalar diquark channel, showing that different low-temperature quark matter phases can occur at intermediate densities: a normal quark matter (NQM) phase, a two-flavor superconducting (2SC) quark matter phase and a mixed 2SC-NQM phase. Although in most cases there is also a gapless 2SC phase, this occurs in general in a small region at nonzero temperatures, thus its effect should be negligible for compact star applications.« less
  • The phase diagram of charge and color neutral two-flavor color superconducting quark matter is studied including the homogeneous two-flavor superconductor (2SC) and the inhomogeneous Fulde-Ferrell (FF) phases within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The low-temperature domain T{<=}5 MeV of the phase diagram contains the FF phase, which borders at high temperatures to the 2SC phase. The critical temperature of phase transition from the 2SC to the unpaired state is in the range 20-30 MeV. We derive the equation of state of matter and its composition and show that matter in mature compact stars should be in the inhomogeneous FF-like superconducting state. Wemore » briefly discuss the astrophysical implications of such a phase in compact stars.« less
  • We address the phase structure of color superconducting quark matter at high quark density. Under the electric and color neutrality conditions there appear various phases as a result of the Fermi surface mismatch among different quark flavors induced by finite strange quark mass; the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase, the u-quark superconducting (uSC) phase, the d-quark superconducting (dSC) phase, the two-flavor superconducting (2SC) phase, and the unpaired quark matter (UQM). Besides, when the Fermi surface mismatch is large enough to surpass the gap energy, the gapless superconducting phase is expected. We discuss the chromomagnetic instability problem and explore the instability regionsmore » on the phase diagram.« less
  • We study the effect of neutrino trapping in newborn quark stars within a three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with self-consistently calculated quark masses. The phase diagrams and equations of state for charge neutral quark matter in {beta} equilibrium are presented, with and without trapped neutrinos. The compact star sequences for different neutrino untrapping scenarios are investigated and the energy release due to neutrino untrapping is found to be of the order of 10{sup 53} erg. We find that hot quark stars characterized, e.g., by an entropy per baryon of 1-2 and a lepton fraction of 0.4, as models for the cores ofmore » newborn protoneutron stars, are in the two-flavor color superconducting state. High temperatures and/or neutrino chemical potentials disfavor configurations with a color-flavor-locked phase. Stable quark star solutions with color-flavor-locked cores exist only at low temperatures and neutrino chemical potentials.« less