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Title: Bone-composition imaging using coherent-scatter computed tomography: Assessing bone health beyond bone mineral density

Abstract

Quantitative analysis of bone composition is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases. Accurate assessment of the bone mineralization state is the first requirement for a comprehensive analysis. In diagnostic imaging, x-ray coherent scatter depends upon the molecular structure of tissues. Coherent-scatter computed tomography (CSCT) exploits this feature to identify tissue types in composite biological specimens. We have used CSCT to map the distributions of tissues relevant to bone disease (fat, soft tissue, collagen, and mineral) within bone-tissue phantoms and an excised cadaveric bone sample. Using a purpose-built scanner, we have measured hydroxyapatite (bone mineral) concentrations based on coherent-scatter patterns from a series of samples with varying hydroxyapatite content. The measured scatter intensity is proportional to mineral density in true g/cm{sup 3}. Repeated measurements of the hydroxyapatite concentration in each sample were within, at most, 2% of each other, revealing an excellent precision in determining hydroxyapatite concentration. All measurements were also found to be accurate to within 3% of the known values. Phantoms simulating normal, over-, and under-mineralized bone were created by mixing known masses of pure collagen and hydroxyapatite. An analysis of the composite scatter patterns gave the density of each material. For each composite,more » the densities were within 2% of the known values. Collagen and hydroxyapatite concentrations were also examined in a bone-mimicking phantom, incorporating other bone constituents (fat, soft tissue). Tomographic maps of the coherent-scatter properties of each specimen were reconstructed, from which material-specific images were generated. Each tissue was clearly distinguished and the collagen-mineral ratio determined from this phantom was also within 2% of the known value. Existing bone analysis techniques cannot determine the collagen-mineral ratio in intact specimens. Finally, to demonstrate the in situ potential of this technique, the mineralization state of an excised normal cadaveric radius was examined. The average collagen-mineral ratio of the cortical bone derived from material-specific images of the radius was 0.53{+-}0.04, which is in agreement with the expected value of 0.55 for healthy bones.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Imaging Research Laboratories, Roberts Research Institute, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 (Canada)
  2. (Canada)
  3. (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20775128
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 33; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1118/1.2179151; (c) 2006 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BIOCHEMISTRY; BONE TISSUES; COLLAGEN; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DIAGNOSIS; FATS; IMAGES; MINERALIZATION; MINERALS; PHANTOMS; SKELETAL DISEASES; SKELETON; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Batchelar, Deidre L., Davidson, Melanie T.M., Dabrowski, Waldemar, Cunningham, Ian A., Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8, and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8. Bone-composition imaging using coherent-scatter computed tomography: Assessing bone health beyond bone mineral density. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2179151.
Batchelar, Deidre L., Davidson, Melanie T.M., Dabrowski, Waldemar, Cunningham, Ian A., Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8, & Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8. Bone-composition imaging using coherent-scatter computed tomography: Assessing bone health beyond bone mineral density. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2179151.
Batchelar, Deidre L., Davidson, Melanie T.M., Dabrowski, Waldemar, Cunningham, Ian A., Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8, and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8. Sat . "Bone-composition imaging using coherent-scatter computed tomography: Assessing bone health beyond bone mineral density". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2179151.
@article{osti_20775128,
title = {Bone-composition imaging using coherent-scatter computed tomography: Assessing bone health beyond bone mineral density},
author = {Batchelar, Deidre L. and Davidson, Melanie T.M. and Dabrowski, Waldemar and Cunningham, Ian A. and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8 and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8},
abstractNote = {Quantitative analysis of bone composition is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases. Accurate assessment of the bone mineralization state is the first requirement for a comprehensive analysis. In diagnostic imaging, x-ray coherent scatter depends upon the molecular structure of tissues. Coherent-scatter computed tomography (CSCT) exploits this feature to identify tissue types in composite biological specimens. We have used CSCT to map the distributions of tissues relevant to bone disease (fat, soft tissue, collagen, and mineral) within bone-tissue phantoms and an excised cadaveric bone sample. Using a purpose-built scanner, we have measured hydroxyapatite (bone mineral) concentrations based on coherent-scatter patterns from a series of samples with varying hydroxyapatite content. The measured scatter intensity is proportional to mineral density in true g/cm{sup 3}. Repeated measurements of the hydroxyapatite concentration in each sample were within, at most, 2% of each other, revealing an excellent precision in determining hydroxyapatite concentration. All measurements were also found to be accurate to within 3% of the known values. Phantoms simulating normal, over-, and under-mineralized bone were created by mixing known masses of pure collagen and hydroxyapatite. An analysis of the composite scatter patterns gave the density of each material. For each composite, the densities were within 2% of the known values. Collagen and hydroxyapatite concentrations were also examined in a bone-mimicking phantom, incorporating other bone constituents (fat, soft tissue). Tomographic maps of the coherent-scatter properties of each specimen were reconstructed, from which material-specific images were generated. Each tissue was clearly distinguished and the collagen-mineral ratio determined from this phantom was also within 2% of the known value. Existing bone analysis techniques cannot determine the collagen-mineral ratio in intact specimens. Finally, to demonstrate the in situ potential of this technique, the mineralization state of an excised normal cadaveric radius was examined. The average collagen-mineral ratio of the cortical bone derived from material-specific images of the radius was 0.53{+-}0.04, which is in agreement with the expected value of 0.55 for healthy bones.},
doi = {10.1118/1.2179151},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 33,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}