skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Coronary x-ray angiographic reconstruction and image orientation

Abstract

We have developed an interactive geometric method for 3D reconstruction of the coronary arteries using multiple single-plane angiographic views with arbitrary orientations. Epipolar planes and epipolar lines are employed to trace corresponding vessel segments on these views. These points are utilized to reconstruct 3D vessel centerlines. The accuracy of the reconstruction is assessed using: (1) near-intersection distances of the rays that connect x-ray sources with projected points, (2) distances between traced and projected centerlines. These same two measures enter into a fitness function for a genetic search algorithm (GA) employed to orient the angiographic image planes automatically in 3D avoiding local minima in the search for optimized parameters. Furthermore, the GA utilizes traced vessel shapes (as opposed to isolated anchor points) to assist the optimization process. Differences between two-view and multiview reconstructions are evaluated. Vessel radii are measured and used to render the coronary tree in 3D as a surface. Reconstruction fidelity is demonstrated via (1) virtual phantom, (2) real phantom, and (3) patient data sets, the latter two of which utilize the GA. These simulated and measured angiograms illustrate that the vessel centerlines are reconstructed in 3D with accuracy below 1 mm. The reconstruction method is thus accurate comparedmore » to typical vessel dimensions of 1-3 mm. The methods presented should enable a combined interpretation of the severity of coronary artery stenoses and the hemodynamic impact on myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada and Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada) (and others)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20775091
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 33; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1118/1.2143352; (c) 2006 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ACCURACY; ALGORITHMS; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES; CORONARIES; IMAGE PROCESSING; IMAGES; MUSCLES; OPTIMIZATION; PATIENTS; PHANTOMS; X RADIATION; X-RAY SOURCES

Citation Formats

Sprague, Kevin, Drangova, Maria, and Lehmann, Glen. Coronary x-ray angiographic reconstruction and image orientation. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2143352.
Sprague, Kevin, Drangova, Maria, & Lehmann, Glen. Coronary x-ray angiographic reconstruction and image orientation. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2143352.
Sprague, Kevin, Drangova, Maria, and Lehmann, Glen. Wed . "Coronary x-ray angiographic reconstruction and image orientation". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2143352.
@article{osti_20775091,
title = {Coronary x-ray angiographic reconstruction and image orientation},
author = {Sprague, Kevin and Drangova, Maria and Lehmann, Glen},
abstractNote = {We have developed an interactive geometric method for 3D reconstruction of the coronary arteries using multiple single-plane angiographic views with arbitrary orientations. Epipolar planes and epipolar lines are employed to trace corresponding vessel segments on these views. These points are utilized to reconstruct 3D vessel centerlines. The accuracy of the reconstruction is assessed using: (1) near-intersection distances of the rays that connect x-ray sources with projected points, (2) distances between traced and projected centerlines. These same two measures enter into a fitness function for a genetic search algorithm (GA) employed to orient the angiographic image planes automatically in 3D avoiding local minima in the search for optimized parameters. Furthermore, the GA utilizes traced vessel shapes (as opposed to isolated anchor points) to assist the optimization process. Differences between two-view and multiview reconstructions are evaluated. Vessel radii are measured and used to render the coronary tree in 3D as a surface. Reconstruction fidelity is demonstrated via (1) virtual phantom, (2) real phantom, and (3) patient data sets, the latter two of which utilize the GA. These simulated and measured angiograms illustrate that the vessel centerlines are reconstructed in 3D with accuracy below 1 mm. The reconstruction method is thus accurate compared to typical vessel dimensions of 1-3 mm. The methods presented should enable a combined interpretation of the severity of coronary artery stenoses and the hemodynamic impact on myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease.},
doi = {10.1118/1.2143352},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 33,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Purpose: X-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is widely used for vascular imaging. However, the need to subtract a mask image can result in motion artifacts and compromised image quality. The current interest in energy-resolving photon-counting (EPC) detectors offers the promise of eliminating motion artifacts and other advanced applications using a single exposure. The authors describe a method of assessing the iodine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that may be achieved with energy-resolved angiography (ERA) to enable a direct comparison with other approaches including DSA and dual-energy angiography for the same patient exposure. Methods: A linearized noise-propagation approach, combined with linear expressions ofmore » dual-energy and energy-resolved imaging, is used to describe the iodine SNR. The results were validated by a Monte Carlo calculation for all three approaches and compared visually for dual-energy and DSA imaging using a simple angiographic phantom with a CsI-based flat-panel detector. Results: The linearized SNR calculations show excellent agreement with Monte Carlo results. While dual-energy methods require an increased tube heat load of 2x to 4x compared to DSA, and photon-counting detectors are not yet ready for angiographic imaging, the available iodine SNR for both methods as tested is within 10% of that of conventional DSA for the same patient exposure over a wide range of patient thicknesses and iodine concentrations. Conclusions: While the energy-based methods are not necessarily optimized and further improvements are likely, the linearized noise-propagation analysis provides the theoretical framework of a level playing field for optimization studies and comparison with conventional DSA. It is concluded that both dual-energy and photon-counting approaches have the potential to provide similar angiographic image quality to DSA.« less
  • The aim of this work is the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the left or right heart chamber from digital biplane angiograms. The approach used, the binary reconstruction, exploits the density information of subtracted ventriculograms from two orthogonal views in addition to the ventricular contours. The ambiguity of the problem is largely reduced by incorporating a priori knowledge of human ventricles. A model-based reconstruction program is described that is applicable to routinely acquired biplane ventriculographic studies. Prior to reconstruction, several geometric and densitometric imaging errors are corrected. The finding of corresponding density profiles and anatomical landmarks is supported by a biplanemore » image pairing procedure that takes the movement of the gantry system into account. Absolute measurements are based on geometric isocenter calibration and a slice-wise density calibration technique. The reconstructed ventricles allow 3-D visualization and regional wall motion analysis independently of the gantry setting. The method is applied to clinical angiograms and tested in left- and right-ventricular phantoms yielding a well shape conformity even with few model information. The results indicate that volumes of binary reconstructed ventricles are less projection-dependent compared to volume data derived by purely contour-based methods. A limitations is that the heart chamber must not be superimposed by other dye-filled structures in both projections.« less
  • Temporal resolved x-ray penumbral imaging has been developed using an image reconstruction procedure of the heuristic method and a wide dynamic range x-ray streak camera (XSC). Reconstruction procedure of the penumbral imaging is inherently intolerant to noise, a reconstructed image is strongly distorted by artifacts caused by noise in a penumbral image. Statistical fluctuation in the number of detected photon is the dominant source of noise in an x-ray image, however acceptable brightness of an image is limited by dynamic range of an XSC. The wide dynamic range XSC was used to obtain penumbral images bright enough to be reconstructed.more » Additionally, the heuristic method was introduced in the penumbral image reconstruction procedure. Distortion of reconstructed images is sufficiently suppressed by these improvements. Density profiles of laser driven brominated plastic and tin plasma were measured with this technique.« less
  • Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) radiation dose reduction is frequently achieved by applying lower tube voltages and using iterative reconstruction (IR). For calcium scoring, the reference protocol at 120 kVp with filtered back projection (FBP) is still used, because kVp and IR may influence the Agatston score (AS) and volume score (VS). The authors present a two-step method to optimize dose: first, to determine the lowest feasible exposure and highest noise thresholds; second, to define a calibration method that ensures that the AS and VS are similar to the reference protocol. Methods: AS and VS were measured for an anthropomorphic thoracicmore » phantom that includes a calcium calibration module. The phantom was scanned on a 320-row CT scanner, at tube voltages of 120 kVp using FBP, and 120, 100, and 80 kVp using adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR 3D) reconstruction. The minimum CTDIs were determined based on three objective quality criteria. Calibration was performed to estimate adjusted CT number thresholds for the lower kVp acquisitions. Finally, the accuracies of the total and individual insert scores at dose level close to the minimum CTDI level were investigated and compared to low (FBP{sub LD} − 120) and high (FBP{sub HD} − 120) dose reference protocols (based on ten repeated acquisitions for each group). Results: IR allows the exposure to be reduced by 69% at 120 kVp, with no significant effect on the total scores when averaged over all included dose steps and compared to FBP-120 (AS: 693 vs 699, p = 0.182; VS: 588 vs 587 mm{sup 3}, p = 0.569). Also when averaged over ten repeated scans and compared to FBP{sub HD} − 120 (AS: 709 vs 704, p = 0.435; VS: 604 vs 601 mm{sup 3}, p = 0.479), there is no statistical significant effect. Reducing the peak tube voltage allows even greater dose reductions: 73% at 100 kVp and 76% at 80 kVp. The calibrated CT number thresholds for analysis at 120, 100, and 80 kVp were, respectively, 130, 133, and 160 HU for the Agatston score, and 130, 132, and 140 HU for the volume score. Following the calibration, the mean scores of the four groups with dose variation were not significantly different from the reference protocol, at 100 kVp (AS: 698 vs 699, p = 0.818; VS: 584 vs 587 mm{sup 3}, p = 0.365) or at 80 kVp (AS: 698 vs 699, p = 0.996; VS: 586 vs 587 mm{sup 3}, p = 0.827). Similarly, there was no significant score difference with FBP{sub LD} − 120 during repeated scanning: 100 kVp (AS: 690 vs 694, p = 0.394; VS: 579 vs 585 mm{sup 3}, p = 0.168) and 80 kVp (AS: 703 vs 694, p = 0.115; VS: 588 vs 585 mm{sup 3}, p = 0.613). Compared to FBP{sub HD} − 120 group, the relative score deviation for the accuracy of the 400 and 800 mg/cm{sup 3} HA inserts with 3 and 5 mm diameter is less than 7%. However, the relative deviation of the smaller 1 mm inserts is poorer (up to 41% deviations for scores <3). Conclusions: With iterative reconstruction using AIDR 3D, deviations of the total Agatston and volume scores remain within 4% of the reference protocol. The 1 mm inserts were detected as calcification, but scores less than ten tend to be underestimated. Following the calibration process, the application of IR in combination with reduced tube voltages allows up to 76% lower radiation dose.« less
  • A computer simulation is used to study the problem of internal scattering for targets that are imaged using X-ray microtomography. A strategy is outlined for selecting X-ray energy and image resolution based on properties of the material being imaged. The X-ray scanning process is simulated by applying a Monte Carlo technique to a modeled target that emulates the material properties of a microelectronic device. The X-ray photons are subject to photoelectric absorption, Rayleigh scattering, and Compton scattering. The simulation applies a method of high-resolution image reconstruction based on discrete Fourier transforms. Examples of reconstructed images that have 0.5-{micro}m spatial resolutionmore » are shown for images of simulated lead and aluminum targets.« less