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Title: Monte Carlo simulations of dose from microCT imaging procedures in a realistic mouse phantom

Abstract

The purpose of this work was to calculate radiation dose and its organ distribution in a realistic mouse phantom from micro-computed tomography (microCT) imaging protocols. CT dose was calculated using GATE and a voxelized, realistic phantom. The x-ray photon energy spectra used in simulations were precalculated with GATE and validated against previously published data. The number of photons required per simulated experiments was determined by direct exposure measurements. Simulated experiments were performed for three types of beams and two types of mouse beds. Dose-volume histograms and dose percentiles were calculated for each organ. For a typical microCT screening examination with a reconstruction voxel size of 200 {mu}m, the average whole body dose varied from 80 mGy (at 80 kVp) to 160 mGy (at 50 kVp), showing a strong dependence on beam hardness. The average dose to the bone marrow is close to the soft tissue average. However, due to dose nonuniformity and higher radiation sensitivity, 5% of the marrow would receive an effective dose about four times higher than the average. If CT is performed longitudinally, a significant radiation dose can be given. The total absorbed radiation dose is a function of milliamperes-second, beam hardness, and desired image quality (resolution,more » noise and contrast). To reduce dose, it would be advisable to use the hardest beam possible while maintaining an acceptable contrast in the image.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California School of Medicine, 700 Westwood Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20774974
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 33; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1118/1.2148333; (c) 2006 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; BONE MARROW; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; ENERGY SPECTRA; IMAGES; MICE; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PHANTOMS; PHOTONS; RADIATION DOSES; SENSITIVITY

Citation Formats

Taschereau, Richard, Chow, Patrick L., and Chatziioannou, Arion F. Monte Carlo simulations of dose from microCT imaging procedures in a realistic mouse phantom. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2148333.
Taschereau, Richard, Chow, Patrick L., & Chatziioannou, Arion F. Monte Carlo simulations of dose from microCT imaging procedures in a realistic mouse phantom. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2148333.
Taschereau, Richard, Chow, Patrick L., and Chatziioannou, Arion F. Sun . "Monte Carlo simulations of dose from microCT imaging procedures in a realistic mouse phantom". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2148333.
@article{osti_20774974,
title = {Monte Carlo simulations of dose from microCT imaging procedures in a realistic mouse phantom},
author = {Taschereau, Richard and Chow, Patrick L. and Chatziioannou, Arion F.},
abstractNote = {The purpose of this work was to calculate radiation dose and its organ distribution in a realistic mouse phantom from micro-computed tomography (microCT) imaging protocols. CT dose was calculated using GATE and a voxelized, realistic phantom. The x-ray photon energy spectra used in simulations were precalculated with GATE and validated against previously published data. The number of photons required per simulated experiments was determined by direct exposure measurements. Simulated experiments were performed for three types of beams and two types of mouse beds. Dose-volume histograms and dose percentiles were calculated for each organ. For a typical microCT screening examination with a reconstruction voxel size of 200 {mu}m, the average whole body dose varied from 80 mGy (at 80 kVp) to 160 mGy (at 50 kVp), showing a strong dependence on beam hardness. The average dose to the bone marrow is close to the soft tissue average. However, due to dose nonuniformity and higher radiation sensitivity, 5% of the marrow would receive an effective dose about four times higher than the average. If CT is performed longitudinally, a significant radiation dose can be given. The total absorbed radiation dose is a function of milliamperes-second, beam hardness, and desired image quality (resolution, noise and contrast). To reduce dose, it would be advisable to use the hardest beam possible while maintaining an acceptable contrast in the image.},
doi = {10.1118/1.2148333},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 33,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • The purpose of this study was to calculate internal absorbed dose distribution in mice from preclinical small animal PET imaging procedures with fluorine-18 labeled compounds ({sup 18}FDG, {sup 18}FLT, and fluoride ion). The GATE Monte Carlo software and a realistic, voxel-based mouse phantom that included a subcutaneous tumor were used to perform simulations. Discretized time-activity curves obtained from dynamic in vivo studies with each of the compounds were used to set the activity concentration in the simulations. For {sup 18}FDG, a realistic range of uptake ratios was considered for the heart and tumor. For each simulated time frame, the biodistributionmore » of the radionuclide in the phantom was considered constant, and a sufficient number of decays were simulated to achieve low statistical uncertainty. Absorbed dose, which was scaled to take into account radioactive decay, integration with time, and changes in biological distribution was reported in mGy per MBq of administered activity for several organs and uptake scenarios. The mean absorbed dose ranged from a few mGy/MBq to hundreds of mGy/MBq. Major organs receive an absorbed dose in a range for which biological effects have been reported. The effects on a given investigation are hard to predict; however, investigators should be aware of potential perturbations especially when the studied organ receives high absorbed dose and when longitudinal imaging protocols are considered.« less
  • Purpose: Biokinetic and dosimetry studies in laboratory animals often precede clinical radionuclide therapies in humans. A reliable evaluation of therapeutic efficacy is essential and should be based on accurate dosimetry data from a realistic dosimetry model. The aim of this study was to develop an anatomically realistic dosimetry model for Brown Norway rats to calculate S factors for use in evaluating correlations between absorbed dose and biological effects in a preclinical therapy study. Methods: A realistic rat phantom (Roby) was used, which has some flexibility that allows for a redefinition of organ sizes. The phantom was modified to represent themore » anatomic geometry of a Brown Norway rat, which was used for Monte Carlo calculations of S factors. Kinetic data for radiolabeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies were used to calculate the absorbed dose. Biological data were gathered from an activity escalation study with {sup 90}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-labeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies, in which blood cell counts and bodyweight were examined up to 2 months follow-up after injection. Reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts and declines in bodyweight were quantified by four methods and compared to the calculated absorbed dose to the bone marrow or the total body. Results: A red marrow absorbed dose-dependent effect on hematological parameters was observed, which could be evaluated by a decrease in blood cell counts. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow, corresponding to the maximal tolerable activity that could safely be administered, was determined to 8.3 Gy for {sup 177}Lu and 12.5 Gy for {sup 90}Y. Conclusions: There was a clear correlation between the hematological effects, quantified with some of the studied parameters, and the calculated red marrow absorbed doses. The decline in body weight was stronger correlated to the total body absorbed dose, rather than the red marrow absorbed dose. Finally, when considering a constant activity concentration, the phantom weight, ranging from 225 g to 300 g, appeared to have no substantial effect for the estimated absorbed dose.« less
  • Purpose: Commonly used radiopharmaceuticals were tested to define the most important dosimetric factors in preclinical studies. Dosimetric calculations were applied in two different whole-body mouse models, with varying organ size, so as to determine their impact on absorbed doses and S-values. Organ mass influence was evaluated with computational models and Monte Carlo(MC) simulations. Methods: MC simulations were executed on GATE to determine dose distribution in the 4D digital MOBY mouse phantom. Two mouse models, 28 and 34 g respectively, were constructed based on realistic preclinical exams to calculate the absorbed doses and S-values of five commonly used radionuclides in SPECT/PETmore » studies (18F, 68Ga, 177Lu, 111In and 99mTc).Radionuclide biodistributions were obtained from literature. Realistic statistics (uncertainty lower than 4.5%) were acquired using the standard physical model in Geant4. Comparisons of the dosimetric calculations on the two different phantoms for each radiopharmaceutical are presented. Results: Dose per organ in mGy was calculated for all radiopharmaceuticals. The two models introduced a difference of 0.69% in their brain masses, while the largest differences were observed in the marrow 18.98% and in the thyroid 18.65% masses.Furthermore, S-values of the most important target-organs were calculated for each isotope. Source-organ was selected to be the whole mouse body.Differences on the S-factors were observed in the 6.0–30.0% range. Tables with all the calculations as reference dosimetric data were developed. Conclusion: Accurate dose per organ and the most appropriate S-values are derived for specific preclinical studies. The impact of the mouse model size is rather high (up to 30% for a 17.65% difference in the total mass), and thus accurate definition of the organ mass is a crucial parameter for self-absorbed S values calculation.Our goal is to extent the study for accurate estimations in small animal imaging, whereas it is known that there is a large variety in the anatomy of the organs.« less
  • Purpose: Small animals are increasingly used as translational models in preclinical imaging studies involving microCT, during which the subjects can be exposed to large amounts of radiation. While the radiation levels are generally sublethal, studies have shown that low-level radiation can change physiological parameters in mice. In order to rule out any influence of radiation on the outcome of such experiments, or resulting deterministic effects in the subjects, the levels of radiation involved need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to investigate the radiation dose delivered by the GE eXplore 120 microCT non-invasively using Monte Carlo simulationsmore » in GATE and to compare results to previously obtained experimental values. Methods: Tungsten X-ray spectra were simulated at 70, 80, and 97 kVp using an analytical tool and their half-value layers were simulated for spectra validation against experimentally measured values of the physical X-ray tube. A Monte Carlo model of the microCT system was set up and four protocols that are regularly applied to live animal scanning were implemented. The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) inside a PMMA phantom was derived and multiple field of view acquisitions were simulated using the PMMA phantom, a representative mouse and rat. Results: Simulated half-value layers agreed with experimentally obtained results within a 7% error window. The CTDI ranged from 20 to 56 mGy and closely matched experimental values. Derived organ doses in mice reached 459 mGy in bones and up to 200 mGy in soft tissue organs using the highest energy protocol. Dose levels in rats were lower due to the increased mass of the animal compared to mice. The uncertainty of all dose simulations was below 14%. Conclusions: Monte Carlo simulations proved a valuable tool to investigate the 3D dose distribution in animals from microCT. Small animals, especially mice (due to their small volume), receive large amounts of radiation from the GE eXplore 120 microCT, which might alter physiological parameters in a longitudinal study setup.« less
  • Purpose: To measure radiation dose in a water-equivalent medium from very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams and make comparisons to Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results. Methods: Dose in a polystyrene phantom delivered by an experimental VHEE beam line was measured with Gafchromic films for three 50 MeV and two 70 MeV Gaussian beams of 4.0–6.9 mm FWHM and compared to corresponding MC-simulated dose distributions. MC dose in the polystyrene phantom was calculated with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes based on the experimental setup. Additionally, the effect of 2% beam energy measurement uncertainty and possible non-zero beam angular spread on MC dosemore » distributions was evaluated. Results: MC simulated percentage depth dose (PDD) curves agreed with measurements within 4% for all beam sizes at both 50 and 70 MeV VHEE beams. Central axis PDD at 8 cm depth ranged from 14% to 19% for the 5.4–6.9 mm 50 MeV beams and it ranged from 14% to 18% for the 4.0–4.5 mm 70 MeV beams. MC simulated relative beam profiles of regularly shaped Gaussian beams evaluated at depths of 0.64 to 7.46 cm agreed with measurements to within 5%. A 2% beam energy uncertainty and 0.286° beam angular spread corresponded to a maximum 3.0% and 3.8% difference in depth dose curves of the 50 and 70 MeV electron beams, respectively. Absolute dose differences between MC simulations and film measurements of regularly shaped Gaussian beams were between 10% and 42%. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that relative dose distributions for VHEE beams of 50–70 MeV can be measured with Gafchromic films and modeled with Monte Carlo simulations to an accuracy of 5%. The reported absolute dose differences likely caused by imperfect beam steering and subsequent charge loss revealed the importance of accurate VHEE beam control and diagnostics.« less