## On-line evaluation of capacity and energy losses in power transmission systems by using artificial neural networks

An adaptive loss evaluation algorithm for power transmission systems is proposed in this paper. The algorithm is based on training of artificial neural networks (ANNs) using backpropagation. Due to the capability of parallel information processing of the ANNs, the proposed method is fast and yet accurate. Active and reactive powers of generators and loads, as well as the magnitudes of voltages at voltage-controlled buses are chosen as inputs to the ANN. System losses are chosen as the outputs. Training data are obtained by load flow studies, assuming that the state variables of the power system to be studied take themore »