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Title: Estimating the unknown components of nutrient mass balances for forestry plantations in mine rehabilitation, Upper Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia

Abstract

Commercial forestry plantations as a postmining land use in the Upper Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia are restricted by both the poor nutrient availability of mining substrates and low regional rainfall. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether municipal waste products and saline groundwater from coal mining operations could improve early tree growth without impacting on the environment through salt accumulation and/or nutrient enrichment and changes in groundwater quality. Potential impacts were investigated by quantifying the nutrient cycling dynamics within the plantation using an input - output mass balance approach for exchangeable calcium, exchangeable magnesium, exchangeable potassium, exchangeable sodium, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Measured inputs to and outputs from the available nutrient pool in the 0 - 30 cm of the overburden subsystem were used to estimate the net effect of unmeasured inputs and outputs (termed 'residuals'). Residual values in the mass balance of the irrigated treatments demonstrated large leaching losses of exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and Na. Between 96% and 103% of Na applied in saline mine-water irrigation was leached below the 0-30-cm soil profile zone. The fate of these salts beyond 30 cm is unknown, but results suggest that irrigation with saline mine water had minimal impactmore » on the substrate to 30 cm over the first 2 years since plantation establishment. Accumulations of N and P were detected for the substrate amendments, suggesting that organic amendments (particularly compost) retained the applied nutrients with very little associated losses, particularly through leaching.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. University of New England, Armidale, NSW (Australia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20727794
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Management; Journal Volume: 37; Journal Issue: 4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; FORESTRY; AUSTRALIA; NEW SOUTH WALES; LAND USE; LAND RECLAMATION; REVEGETATION; PLANT GROWTH; TREES; IRRIGATION; NUTRIENTS; GROUND WATER; SALINITY; COAL MINING; MUNICIPAL WASTES; OVERBURDEN; MINERAL WASTES

Citation Formats

Mercuri, A.M., Duggin, J.A., Daniel, H., Lockwood, P.V., and Grant, C.D. Estimating the unknown components of nutrient mass balances for forestry plantations in mine rehabilitation, Upper Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1007/s00267-004-0245-0.
Mercuri, A.M., Duggin, J.A., Daniel, H., Lockwood, P.V., & Grant, C.D. Estimating the unknown components of nutrient mass balances for forestry plantations in mine rehabilitation, Upper Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia. United States. doi:10.1007/s00267-004-0245-0.
Mercuri, A.M., Duggin, J.A., Daniel, H., Lockwood, P.V., and Grant, C.D. Sat . "Estimating the unknown components of nutrient mass balances for forestry plantations in mine rehabilitation, Upper Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia". United States. doi:10.1007/s00267-004-0245-0.
@article{osti_20727794,
title = {Estimating the unknown components of nutrient mass balances for forestry plantations in mine rehabilitation, Upper Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia},
author = {Mercuri, A.M. and Duggin, J.A. and Daniel, H. and Lockwood, P.V. and Grant, C.D.},
abstractNote = {Commercial forestry plantations as a postmining land use in the Upper Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia are restricted by both the poor nutrient availability of mining substrates and low regional rainfall. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether municipal waste products and saline groundwater from coal mining operations could improve early tree growth without impacting on the environment through salt accumulation and/or nutrient enrichment and changes in groundwater quality. Potential impacts were investigated by quantifying the nutrient cycling dynamics within the plantation using an input - output mass balance approach for exchangeable calcium, exchangeable magnesium, exchangeable potassium, exchangeable sodium, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Measured inputs to and outputs from the available nutrient pool in the 0 - 30 cm of the overburden subsystem were used to estimate the net effect of unmeasured inputs and outputs (termed 'residuals'). Residual values in the mass balance of the irrigated treatments demonstrated large leaching losses of exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and Na. Between 96% and 103% of Na applied in saline mine-water irrigation was leached below the 0-30-cm soil profile zone. The fate of these salts beyond 30 cm is unknown, but results suggest that irrigation with saline mine water had minimal impact on the substrate to 30 cm over the first 2 years since plantation establishment. Accumulations of N and P were detected for the substrate amendments, suggesting that organic amendments (particularly compost) retained the applied nutrients with very little associated losses, particularly through leaching.},
doi = {10.1007/s00267-004-0245-0},
journal = {Environmental Management},
number = 4,
volume = 37,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}
  • During the last decade, the more spectacular coal mining developments in Australia have taken place in Queensland's Bowen Basin, where coking coal mines have been developed at a total of seven locations to increase Queensland's saleable coal production by about 20,000,000 metric tons per year to almost 26,000,000 tons in 1977. During the next 10 years, it is most probable that the major growth will take place in the Upper Hunter Valley of New South Wales, some 100 kilometers inland from Newcastle. The area of greatest potential for development in the short term is the Warkworth area, west of Singleton.more » Development of the Warkworth area has already begun: two collieries (Buchanan Lemington and Wambo) have been developed. Both have underground and open pit mines. Three new large open pits are planned for development by about 1980, and several more could be operating by 1985. This one area could easily produce over 30,000,000 tons a year. The region is underlain by the Singleton Coal Measures, which outcrop over 130 kilometers from Broke to Murrurundi, and which represent one of the largest, most accessible, and most concentrated energy resources in Australia. They contain a remarkable concentration of coal seams by world standards, providing spectacular open pit mining potential.« less
  • Perroudite is a new sulfo-halide of Hg and Ag from Cap-Garonne, Var, France; Broken Hill, New South Wales; and Coppin Pool, Western Australia, Australia. Averaged microprobe analyses gave the following formulae: Hg/sub 5.04/Ag/sub 4.03/S/sub 3.96/(Cl/sub 1.55/I/sub 1.55/Br/sub 0.87/)/sub ..sigma..3.97/ (Cap-Garonne), Hg/sub 5.0/Ag/sub 4.2/S/sub 5.45/(I/sub 1.6/Cl/sub 1.55/Br/sub 0.25/)/sub ..sigma..3.4/ (Broken Hill), and Hg/sub 5.7/Ag/sub 3.5/S/sub 5.4/(Cl/sub 2.0/I/sub 1..0/Br/sub 0.5/)/sub ..sigma..3.5/ (Coppin Pool). A structure determination of a Coppin Pool crystal gave the general formula Hg/sub 5-x/Ag/sub 4+x/S/sub 5-x/(Cl,I,Br)/sub 4+x/ (-1.4 < x < 1.4). The mineral is orthorhombic, space group P2/sub 1/2/sub 1/2, with a = 17.47(3), b = 12.23(2), cmore » = 4.29(2) A, V = 917.5 A/sup 3/, and Z = 2. The averaged calculated density is 6.92 gcm/sup 3/. Perroudite forms bright red, transparent prismatic crystals to 0.07 mm in length, elongated along (001) and often flattened on /100/. Luster vitreous to adamantine; streak orange-red; brittle with one perfect cleavage on (100); fracture irregular. The refractive indices are in the range 2.3-2.4; the mineral is biaxial positive; 2V/sub meas/ = 70/sup 0/; dispersion r > v (very strong); pleochroism marked from brownish-red to yellow to brownish-yellow. Perroudite forms from the alteration of Hg- and Ag-bearing tennantite at the type locality (Cap-Garonne). At Broken Hill it occurs in massive white kaolinite associated with silver halides, native silver and native gold, and possibly other mercury-bearing minerals. At Coppin Pool, perroudite occurs with supergene minerals such as covellite, cerussite, anglesite, phosgenite, etc., derived by the weathering of galena in a quartz vein. Halide-rich solutions are implicated in the formation of perroudite at all three occurrences.« less
  • Nyholmite, Cd{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH){sub 2}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, from the Block 14 Opencut, Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia, is a new Cd-Zn arsenate species, isostructural with the minerals of the hureaulite group. The mineral occurs in a quartz-garnet-arsenopyrite matrix as white globules, tufted aggregates of fibrous crystals and radiating hemispheres of thin, colourless, bladed crystals. Associated minerals are goldquarryite, lavendulan-sampleite, scorodite-strengite and gypsum. Individual crystals are up to 0.2 mm in length and 0.05 mm across. The mineral is transparent to translucent with a vitreous lustre. It is brittle with an uneven fracture and a whitemore » streak. The Mohs hardness is 3-3.5 and the calculated density is 4.23 g cm{sup -3} for the empirical formula. Electron microprobe analyses yielded CdO 34.58, ZnO 9.72, MnO 3.59, CuO 3.39, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0.20, CaO 0.16, PbO 0.37, As{sub 2}O{sub 5} 34.55, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 6.29 totalling 92.85 wt.%. The empirical formula, based on 20 oxygen atoms, is Ca{sub 0.03}Pb{sub 0.02} Cd{sub 2.80}Al{sub 0.04}Zn{sub 1.24}-Cu{sub 0.44}Mn{sub 0.53}[(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3.13}(PO{sub 4}){sub 0.92}]{Sigma}{sub 4.05}H{sub 1.91} {center_dot} 3.79H{sub 2}O. Nyholmite is monoclinic, C2/c, a = 18.062(4) {angstrom}, b = 9.341(2) {angstrom}, c = 9.844(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 96.17(3){sup o}, V = 1651.2(6) {angstrom}{sup 3} (single-crystal data, at 123 K). The six strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are [d({angstrom}),I,(hkl)]: 8.985,30,(200); 8.283, 85,(110); 6.169,25,(111); 4.878,25,(002); 3.234,100,(222, 420); 3.079,65,(222, 511); 2.976,45,(113). The crystal structure was solved by Patterson methods and refined using 2045 observed reflections to R1(F) = 3.73%. The structure is characterized by a kinked, five-membered chain of edge-sharing M{phi}{sub 6} ({phi} = unspecified anion) octahedra, or pentamer, that extends in the a direction. The pentamers link by sharing corners to form a sheet in the (001) plane. Pentamers are also linked, via corner-sharing, by (As,P)O{sub 4} groups forming thick slabs in the (001) plane. The slabs link in the c direction by cornersharing between octahedra and tetrahedra to form a dense heteropolyhedral framework. Moderate to weak hydrogen-bonding provides additional linkage between the slabs.« less
  • Understanding long-term changes in forest ecosystem carbon stocks under forest management practices such as timber harvesting is important for assessing the contribution of forests to the global carbon cycle. Harvesting effects are complicated by the amount, type, and condition of residue left on-site, the decomposition rate of this residue, the incorporation of residue into soil organic matter and the rate of new detritus input to the forest floor from regrowing vegetation. In an attempt to address these complexities, the forest succession model LINKAGES was used to assess the production of aboveground biomass, detritus, and soil carbon stocks in native Eucalyptusmore » forests as influenced by five harvest management practices in New South Wales, Australia. The original decomposition sub-routines of LINKAGES were modified by adding components of the Rothamsted (RothC) soil organic matter turnover model. Simulation results using the new model were compared to data from long-term forest inventory plots. Good agreement was observed between simulated and measured above-ground biomass, but mixed results were obtained for basal area. Harvesting operations examined included removing trees for quota sawlogs (QSL, DBH >80 cm), integrated sawlogs (ISL, DBH >20 cm) and whole-tree harvesting in integrated sawlogs (WTH). We also examined the impact of different cutting cycles (20, 50 or 80 years) and intensities (removing 20, 50 or 80 m{sup 3}). Generally medium and high intensities of shorter cutting cycles in sawlog harvesting systems produced considerably higher soil carbon values compared to no harvesting. On average, soil carbon was 2-9% lower in whole-tree harvest simulations whereas in sawlog harvest simulations soil carbon was 5-17% higher than in no harvesting.« less