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Title: Flue gas desulfurization: physicochemical and biotechnological approaches


No abstract prepared.

; ; ;  [1]
  1. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology; Journal Volume: 35; Journal Issue: 6
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

R.A. Pandey, R. Biswas, T. Chakrabarti, and S. Devotta. Flue gas desulfurization: physicochemical and biotechnological approaches. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.1080/10643380500326374.
R.A. Pandey, R. Biswas, T. Chakrabarti, & S. Devotta. Flue gas desulfurization: physicochemical and biotechnological approaches. United States. doi:10.1080/10643380500326374.
R.A. Pandey, R. Biswas, T. Chakrabarti, and S. Devotta. Thu . "Flue gas desulfurization: physicochemical and biotechnological approaches". United States. doi:10.1080/10643380500326374.
title = {Flue gas desulfurization: physicochemical and biotechnological approaches},
author = {R.A. Pandey and R. Biswas and T. Chakrabarti and S. Devotta},
abstractNote = {No abstract prepared.},
doi = {10.1080/10643380500326374},
journal = {Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology},
number = 6,
volume = 35,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Dec 15 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Thu Dec 15 00:00:00 EST 2005}
  • Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord'smore » process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.« less
  • The Dravo Corp. Thiosorbic flue gas desulfurization process uses lime-containing magnesium oxide to increase the alkalinity of and prevent scaling in lime and limestone-based sulfur dioxide removal systems. Data for a TVA Shawnee pilot plant showed that sulfur dioxide removal efficiency was consistently above 95% with magnesium-containing lime but varied from 70 to 98% with conventional lime. In the magnesium system, sulfur dioxide removal efficiency was independent of sulfur dioxide inlet concentration, whereas with conventional lime, the efficiency varied inversely with sulfur dioxide inlet level. Three full-scale demonstration tests have been operated using the Thiosorbic process. The systems were designedmore » to remove 83% of the sulfur dioxide from the flue gas to meet environmental regulations. A list of the operating and projected full-scale Thiosorbic operations shows that by 1980 the total number of powerplants with Thiosorbic scrubbing units will represent 5955 Mw of power generation. The system is applicable to any type of scrubber configuration.« less
  • Application of the Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd. jet bubbling reactor to flue gas desulfurization provides integration of process equipment and high scrubbing performance. This sulfur dioxide removal system offers low investment and operating costs; easy and stable operation without scaling, high sulfur dioxide removal efficiency (over 80%), manageable by-products, i.e., gypsum; and 100% limestone utilization. The jet bubbling reactor has a jet bubbling zone and a reaction zone. Flue gas is dispersed through a gas sparger with its open ends 100-400 mm below the liquid surface; this achieves a gas superficial velocity ten times as high asmore » that in conventional bubbling columns. In the jet bubbling zone, gas-phase mass transfer of sulfur dioxide and dissolution of calcium carbonate are the controlling steps; in the reaction zone, liquid-phase mass transfer of oxygen and crystal growth of gypsum are the controlling steps. The capital and operating costs of this process for a 60 Mw 3% sulfur coal-fired unit are compared with limestone scrubbing alone or followed by oxidation.« less
  • Utility flue gas desulfurization in the U.S., based on a report to EPA by PEDCo Environmental Inc. covers: the number and capacity of operational, under construction, or planned, wet or dry U.S. FGD systems; FGD applications to high- vs. low-sulfur coal; the generally high reliability of new lime/limestone FGD systems when used in base-load power plants operating on coal from one specific source; an overview and status report on advanced processes such as aqueous carbonate, Chiyoda thoroughbred 101 and 121; copper oxide adsorption, dual alkali, dry adsorption, dry collection, magnesium oxide and Wellman Lord; effects on scaling, sulfur dioxide removal,more » and reagent utilization in the lime/limestone process on pH, solids level, and liquid-to-gas ratio; processes for simultaneous control of sulfur oxides and particulates based on electrostatic precipitation; mist elimination systems; stack gas reheaters; process control and instrumentation; construction materials; capital and annual costs; and recommendations for research, development, and demonstration work.« less