skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Numerical simulation and flight experiment on oscillating lifted flames in coflow jets with gravity level variation

Abstract

Characteristics of oscillating lifted flames have been investigated numerically and experimentally by varying the gravity level in coflow jets with propane fuel highly diluted with nitrogen. The results showed that the oscillation amplitude and frequency increased with gravity level. As the gravity level decreased, the oscillation ceased and stationary lifted flames were stabilized when the gravity level became smaller than a critical value. A flame blowout occurred at high gravity levels. The reason for this limited range of oscillation has been analyzed by considering the local characteristics of the propagation speed of tribrachial (triple) flame and axial velocity at the edges of lifted flames. Considerations of the maximum and minimum values of these two components with gravity level during the flame edge oscillation could successfully explain the lower bounds of oscillation accounting for the influences of buoyancy and flame curvature. The blowout at high gravity levels can be explained by the effect of buoyancies on burnt gas and on propane fuel in such a way that the stoichiometric contour near the flame zone became detached from the contour near the nozzle. Finally, the experiments by varying gravity level through the parabolic flights of an aircraft substantiated the overall behavior ofmore » the oscillating lifted flames. (author)« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2]
  1. School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)
  2. Division of Mechanical Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20727301
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Combustion and Flame; Journal Volume: 145; Journal Issue: 1-2; Other Information: Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; FLAMES; GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS; OSCILLATIONS; PROPANE; NITROGEN; STABILIZATION; FLAME PROPAGATION; VELOCITY

Citation Formats

Kim, J., Kim, K.N., Won, S.H., Chung, S.H., Fujita, O., and Takahashi, J. Numerical simulation and flight experiment on oscillating lifted flames in coflow jets with gravity level variation. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2005.10.018.
Kim, J., Kim, K.N., Won, S.H., Chung, S.H., Fujita, O., & Takahashi, J. Numerical simulation and flight experiment on oscillating lifted flames in coflow jets with gravity level variation. United States. doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2005.10.018.
Kim, J., Kim, K.N., Won, S.H., Chung, S.H., Fujita, O., and Takahashi, J. Sat . "Numerical simulation and flight experiment on oscillating lifted flames in coflow jets with gravity level variation". United States. doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2005.10.018.
@article{osti_20727301,
title = {Numerical simulation and flight experiment on oscillating lifted flames in coflow jets with gravity level variation},
author = {Kim, J. and Kim, K.N. and Won, S.H. and Chung, S.H. and Fujita, O. and Takahashi, J.},
abstractNote = {Characteristics of oscillating lifted flames have been investigated numerically and experimentally by varying the gravity level in coflow jets with propane fuel highly diluted with nitrogen. The results showed that the oscillation amplitude and frequency increased with gravity level. As the gravity level decreased, the oscillation ceased and stationary lifted flames were stabilized when the gravity level became smaller than a critical value. A flame blowout occurred at high gravity levels. The reason for this limited range of oscillation has been analyzed by considering the local characteristics of the propagation speed of tribrachial (triple) flame and axial velocity at the edges of lifted flames. Considerations of the maximum and minimum values of these two components with gravity level during the flame edge oscillation could successfully explain the lower bounds of oscillation accounting for the influences of buoyancy and flame curvature. The blowout at high gravity levels can be explained by the effect of buoyancies on burnt gas and on propane fuel in such a way that the stoichiometric contour near the flame zone became detached from the contour near the nozzle. Finally, the experiments by varying gravity level through the parabolic flights of an aircraft substantiated the overall behavior of the oscillating lifted flames. (author)},
doi = {10.1016/j.combustflame.2005.10.018},
journal = {Combustion and Flame},
number = 1-2,
volume = 145,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}
  • Characteristics of laminar lifted flames have been investigated experimentally by varying the initial temperature of coflow air over 800 K in the non-premixed jets of propane diluted with nitrogen. The result showed that the lifted flame with the initial temperature below 860 K maintained the typical tribrachial structure at the leading edge, which was stabilized by the balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and the local flow velocity. For the temperature above 860 K, the flame was autoignited without having any external ignition source. The autoignited lifted flames were categorized in two regimes. In the case withmore » tribrachial edge structure, the liftoff height increased nonlinearly with jet velocity. Especially, for the critical condition near blowout, the lifted flame showed a repetitive behavior of extinction and reignition. In such a case, the autoignition was controlled by the non-adiabatic ignition delay time considering heat loss such that the autoignition height was correlated with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. In the case with mild combustion regime at excessively diluted conditions, the liftoff height increased linearly with jet velocity and was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)« less
  • The autoignition characteristics of laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane fuels have been investigated experimentally in coflow air with elevated temperature over 800 K. The lifted flames were categorized into three regimes depending on the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction: (1) non-autoignited lifted flame, (2) autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial (or triple) edge, and (3) autoignited lifted flame with mild combustion. For the non-autoignited lifted flames at relatively low temperature, the existence of lifted flame depended on the Schmidt number of fuel, such that only the fuels with Sc > 1 exhibited stationary lifted flames. Themore » balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and local flow velocity stabilized the lifted flames. At relatively high initial temperatures, either autoignited lifted flames having tribrachial edge or autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion existed regardless of the Schmidt number of fuel. The adiabatic ignition delay time played a crucial role for the stabilization of autoignited flames. Especially, heat loss during the ignition process should be accounted for, such that the characteristic convection time, defined by the autoignition height divided by jet velocity was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the critical autoignition conditions. The liftoff height was also correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)« less
  • Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the near field of a three-dimensional spatially developing turbulent lifted hydrogen jet flame in heated coflow is performed with a detailed mechanism to determine the stabilization mechanism and the flame structure. The DNS was performed at a jet Reynolds number of 11,000 with over 940 million grid points. The results show that auto-ignition in a fuel-lean mixture at the flame base is the main source of stabilization of the lifted jet flame. A chemical flux analysis shows the occurrence of near-isothermal chemical chain branching preceding thermal runaway upstream of the stabilization point, indicative of hydrogenmore » auto-ignition in the second limit. The Damkoehler number and key intermediate-species behaviour near the leading edge of the lifted flame also verify that auto-ignition occurs at the flame base. At the lifted-flame base, it is found that heat release occurs predominantly through ignition in which the gradients of reactants are opposed. Downstream of the flame base, both rich-premixed and non-premixed flames develop and coexist with auto-ignition. In addition to auto-ignition, Lagrangian tracking of the flame base reveals the passage of large-scale flow structures and their correlation with the fluctuations of the flame base. In particular, the relative position of the flame base and the coherent flow structure induces a cyclic motion of the flame base in the transverse and axial directions about a mean lift-off height. This is confirmed by Lagrangian tracking of key scalars, heat release rate and velocity at the stabilization point.« less
  • Abstract not provided.
  • The joint velocity-turbulence frequency-composition PDF method is applied to a lifted turbulent jet flame with H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} fuel issuing into a wide coflow of lean combustion products, which are at a temperature of 1045 K. Model calculations with detailed chemistry are performed using three existing mixing models (IEM, MC, and EMST) and two chemistry mechanisms (the Mueller and Li mechanisms). Numerically accurate results are obtained and compared with the experimental data. Recent experiments have shown that the stabilization height of this lifted flame is very sensitive to the coflow temperature, much more than to the inlet velocity profile ormore » the initial temperature of the fuel. One percent (i.e., 10 K) change in the coflow temperature (which is well within the experimental uncertainty) can double the lift-off height. The joint PDF calculations capture this sensitivity very well and are in good agreement with the measurements for the velocity, mixture fraction, and species. The three mixing models give relatively similar results, implying that the cases studied here are mainly controlled by chemical kinetics. The Li mechanism results in earlier ignition than the Mueller mechanism and hence gives shorter lift-off heights over the whole test range. The joint PDF calculations generally give better agreement with the measurements than previous composition PDF calculations [A.R. Masri et al., Combust. Theory Modelling 8 (2004) 1-22]. A new parallel algorithm, involving domain partitioning of particles, has been implemented to facilitate these computations.« less