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Title: Preliminary study on the use of nonrigid registration for thoraco-abdominal radiosurgery

Abstract

The inclusion of organ deformation and movement in radiosurgery treatment planning is of increasing importance as research and clinical applications begin to take into consideration the effects of physiological processes, like breathing, on the shape and position of lesions. In this scenario, the challenge is to localize the target in toto (not only by means of marker sampling) and to calculate the dose distribution as the sum of all the contributions from the positions assumed by the target during the respiratory cycle. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of nonrigid registration for target tracking and dynamic treatment planning, i.e., treatment planning based not on one single CT scan but on multiple CT scans representative of the respiration. Twenty patients were CT scanned at end-inhale and end-exhale. An expert radiation oncologist identified the PTV in both examinations. The two CT data sets per patient were nonrigidly registered using a free-form deformation algorithm based on B-splines. The optimized objective function consisted of a weighted sum of a similarity criterion (Mutual Information) and a regularization factor which constrains the transformation to be locally rigid. Once the transformation was obtained and the registration validated, its parameters were applied to themore » target only. Finally, the deformed target was compared to the PTV delineated by the radiation oncologist in the other study. The results of this procedure show an agreement between the center of mass as well as volume of the target identified automatically by deformable registration and manually by the radiation oncologist. Moreover, obtained displacements were in agreement with body structure constraints and considerations usually accepted in radiation therapy practice. No significant influence of initial target volume on displacements was found. In conclusion, the proposed method seems to offer the possibility of using nonrigid registrations in radiosurgery treatment planning, even if more cases need to be investigated in order to give a statistical consistency to parameter setup and proposed considerations.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Department of Medical Physics, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza (Italy)
  2. (Belgium)
  3. (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20726876
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 32; Journal Issue: 12; Other Information: DOI: 10.1118/1.2103428; (c) 2005 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ALGORITHMS; CENTER-OF-MASS SYSTEM; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; MEDICAL PERSONNEL; ORGANS; PATIENTS; PLANNING; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY; RESPIRATION; SAMPLING; SURGERY

Citation Formats

Stancanello, J., Berna, E., Cavedon, C., Francescon, P., Loeckx, D., Cerveri, P., Ferrigno, G., Baselli, G., Medical Image Computing, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, and Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan. Preliminary study on the use of nonrigid registration for thoraco-abdominal radiosurgery. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2103428.
Stancanello, J., Berna, E., Cavedon, C., Francescon, P., Loeckx, D., Cerveri, P., Ferrigno, G., Baselli, G., Medical Image Computing, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, & Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan. Preliminary study on the use of nonrigid registration for thoraco-abdominal radiosurgery. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2103428.
Stancanello, J., Berna, E., Cavedon, C., Francescon, P., Loeckx, D., Cerveri, P., Ferrigno, G., Baselli, G., Medical Image Computing, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, and Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan. Thu . "Preliminary study on the use of nonrigid registration for thoraco-abdominal radiosurgery". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2103428.
@article{osti_20726876,
title = {Preliminary study on the use of nonrigid registration for thoraco-abdominal radiosurgery},
author = {Stancanello, J. and Berna, E. and Cavedon, C. and Francescon, P. and Loeckx, D. and Cerveri, P. and Ferrigno, G. and Baselli, G. and Medical Image Computing, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven and Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan},
abstractNote = {The inclusion of organ deformation and movement in radiosurgery treatment planning is of increasing importance as research and clinical applications begin to take into consideration the effects of physiological processes, like breathing, on the shape and position of lesions. In this scenario, the challenge is to localize the target in toto (not only by means of marker sampling) and to calculate the dose distribution as the sum of all the contributions from the positions assumed by the target during the respiratory cycle. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of nonrigid registration for target tracking and dynamic treatment planning, i.e., treatment planning based not on one single CT scan but on multiple CT scans representative of the respiration. Twenty patients were CT scanned at end-inhale and end-exhale. An expert radiation oncologist identified the PTV in both examinations. The two CT data sets per patient were nonrigidly registered using a free-form deformation algorithm based on B-splines. The optimized objective function consisted of a weighted sum of a similarity criterion (Mutual Information) and a regularization factor which constrains the transformation to be locally rigid. Once the transformation was obtained and the registration validated, its parameters were applied to the target only. Finally, the deformed target was compared to the PTV delineated by the radiation oncologist in the other study. The results of this procedure show an agreement between the center of mass as well as volume of the target identified automatically by deformable registration and manually by the radiation oncologist. Moreover, obtained displacements were in agreement with body structure constraints and considerations usually accepted in radiation therapy practice. No significant influence of initial target volume on displacements was found. In conclusion, the proposed method seems to offer the possibility of using nonrigid registrations in radiosurgery treatment planning, even if more cases need to be investigated in order to give a statistical consistency to parameter setup and proposed considerations.},
doi = {10.1118/1.2103428},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 12,
volume = 32,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Dec 15 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Thu Dec 15 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}
  • The thoraco-abdominal syndrome (TAS) presents a closure defect confined to the ventral midline, manifested as ventral hernia of various degrees in all affected individuals and antero-lateral diaphragmatic defect manifested almost exclusively in affected males. The syndrome is inherited as an X-linked dominant trait affecting blastogenesis (XLB mutation). The authors studied 27 members of the TAS family for linkage on the X chromosome. The best lod score of 5.5 at {theta}0.04 was found for the HPRT locus on Xq26.1. A multilocus lod score of 12.4 was observed when the linkage analysis utilized additional markers in Xq25-26. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1more » tab.« less
  • Purpose: The objective of this study is to verify and analyze the accuracy of a clinical deformable image registration (DIR) software. Methods: To test clinical DIR software qualitatively and quantitatively, we focused on lung radiotherapy and analyzed a single (Lung) patient CT scan. Artificial anatomical changes were applied to account for daily variations during the course of treatment including the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR). The primary CT (pCT) and the structure set (pST) was deformed with commercial tool (ImSimQA-Oncology Systems Limited) and after artificial deformation (dCT and dST) sent to another commercial tool (VelocityAI-Varian Medicalmore » Systems). In Velocity, the deformed CT and structures (dCT and dST) were inversely deformed back to original primary CT (dbpCT and dbpST). We compared the dbpST and pST structure sets using similarity metrics. Furthermore, a binary deformation field vector (BDF) was created and sent to ImSimQA software for comparison with known “ground truth” deformation vector fields (DVF). Results: An image similarity comparison was made by using “ground truth” DVF and “deformed output” BDF with an output of normalized “cross correlation (CC)” and “mutual information (MI)” in ImSimQA software. Results for the lung case were MI=0.66 and CC=0.99. The artificial structure deformation in both pST and dbpST was analyzed using DICE coefficient, mean distance to conformity (MDC) and deformation field error volume histogram (DFEVH) by comparing them before and after inverse deformation. We have noticed inadequate structure match for CTV, ITV and PTV due to close proximity of heart and overall affected by lung expansion. Conclusion: We have seen similarity between pCT and dbpCT but not so well between pST and dbpST, because of inadequate structure deformation in clinical DIR system. This system based quality assurance test will prepare us for adopting the guidelines of upcoming AAPM task group 132 protocol.« less
  • Purpose: To study the interfraction reproducibility of breath-holding using active breath control (ABC), and to develop computerized tools to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) intrathoracic motion in each patient. Methods and materials: Since June 2002, 11 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer enrolled in a Phase II trial have undergone four CT scans: one during free-breathing (reference) and three using ABC. Patients left the room between breath-hold scans. The patient's breath was held at the same predefined phase of the breathing cycle (about 70% of the vital capacity) using the ABC device, then patients received 3D-conformal radiotherapy. Automated computerized tools for breath-hold CTmore » scans were developed to analyze lung and tumor interfraction residual motions with 3D nonrigid registration. Results: All patients but one were safely treated with ABC for 7 weeks. For 6 patients, the lung volume differences were <5%. The mean 3D displacement inside the lungs was between 2.3 mm (SD 1.4) and 4 mm (SD 3.3), and the gross tumor volume residual motion was 0.9 mm (SD 0.4) to 5.9 mm (SD 0.7). The residual motion was slightly greater in the inferior part of the lung than the superior. For 2 patients, we detected volume changes >300 cm{sup 3} and displacements >10 mm, probably owing to atelectasia and emphysema. One patient was excluded, and two others had incomplete data sets. Conclusion: Breath-holding with ABC was effective in 6 patients, and discrepancies were clinically accountable in 2. The proposed 3D nonrigid registration method allows for personalized evaluation of breath-holding reproducibility with ABC. It will be used to adapt the patient-specific internal margins.« less
  • Purpose: Head and neck radiotherapy planning with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) requires the images to be reliably registered with treatment planning CT. Acquiring PET/CT in treatment position is problematic, and in practice for some patients it may be beneficial to use diagnostic PET/CT for radiotherapy planning. Therefore, the aim of this study was first to quantify the image registration accuracy of PET/CT to radiotherapy CT and, second, to assess whether PET/CT acquired in diagnostic position can be registered to planning CT. Methods and Materials: Positron emission tomography/CT acquired in diagnostic and treatment position for five patients with head andmore » neck cancer was registered to radiotherapy planning CT using both rigid and nonrigid image registration. The root mean squared error for each method was calculated from a set of anatomic landmarks marked by four independent observers. Results: Nonrigid and rigid registration errors for treatment position PET/CT to planning CT were 2.77 {+-} 0.80 mm and 4.96 {+-} 2.38 mm, respectively, p = 0.001. Applying the nonrigid registration to diagnostic position PET/CT produced a more accurate match to the planning CT than rigid registration of treatment position PET/CT (3.20 {+-} 1.22 mm and 4.96 {+-} 2.38 mm, respectively, p = 0.012). Conclusions: Nonrigid registration provides a more accurate registration of head and neck PET/CT to treatment planning CT than rigid registration. In addition, nonrigid registration of PET/CT acquired with patients in a standardized, diagnostic position can provide images registered to planning CT with greater accuracy than a rigid registration of PET/CT images acquired in treatment position. This may allow greater flexibility in the timing of PET/CT for head and neck cancer patients due to undergo radiotherapy.« less
  • Conventional radiotherapy is planned using free-breathing computed tomography (CT), ignoring the motion and deformation of the anatomy from respiration. New breath-hold-synchronized, gated, and four-dimensional (4D) CT acquisition strategies are enabling radiotherapy planning utilizing a set of CT scans belonging to different phases of the breathing cycle. Such 4D treatment planning relies on the availability of tumor and organ contours in all phases. The current practice of manual segmentation is impractical for 4D CT, because it is time consuming and tedious. A viable solution is registration-based segmentation, through which contours provided by an expert for a particular phase are propagated tomore » all other phases while accounting for phase-to-phase motion and anatomical deformation. Deformable image registration is central to this task, and a free-form deformation-based nonrigid image registration algorithm will be presented. Compared with the original algorithm, this version uses novel, computationally simpler geometric constraints to preserve the topology of the dense control-point grid used to represent free-form deformation and prevent tissue fold-over. Using mean squared difference as an image similarity criterion, the inhale phase is registered to the exhale phase of lung CT scans of five patients and of characteristically low-contrast abdominal CT scans of four patients. In addition, using expert contours for the inhale phase, the corresponding contours were automatically generated for the exhale phase. The accuracy of the segmentation (and hence deformable image registration) was judged by comparing automatically segmented contours with expert contours traced directly in the exhale phase scan using three metrics: volume overlap index, root mean square distance, and Hausdorff distance. The accuracy of the segmentation (in terms of radial distance mismatch) was approximately 2 mm in the thorax and 3 mm in the abdomen, which compares favorably to the accuracies reported elsewhere. Unlike most prior work, segmentation of the tumor is also presented. The clinical implementation of 4D treatment planning is critically dependent on automatic segmentation, for which is offered one of the most accurate algorithms yet presented.« less