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Title: Quantitative analysis of sputter processes in a small magnetron system

Abstract

Sputter deposition of titanium in argon from a small circular magnetron is characterized. The dependence of the deposition rate on pressure, power, and target-substrate distance has been measured. A framework for the application of the analytic approach by Keller and Simmons of ballistic and diffusive transport to simple three-dimensional sputter geometries is developed and applied. The sputter yield and the pressure-distance product are determined from the data set as the only fit parameters of the model. For the entire range of operation of the magnetron, the sputter process can be described in terms of the relatively simple approach.

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Saarbruecken, P. O. Box 151150, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20723216
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films; Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: DOI: 10.1116/1.2091197; (c) 2005 American Vacuum Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ARGON; DIFFUSION; ENERGY DEPENDENCE; MAGNETRONS; PRESSURE DEPENDENCE; SPACE DEPENDENCE; SPUTTERING; SUBSTRATES; SURFACE COATING; THIN FILMS; TITANIUM

Citation Formats

Knittel, Ivo, Gothe, Marc, and Hartmann, Uwe. Quantitative analysis of sputter processes in a small magnetron system. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.1116/1.2091197.
Knittel, Ivo, Gothe, Marc, & Hartmann, Uwe. Quantitative analysis of sputter processes in a small magnetron system. United States. doi:10.1116/1.2091197.
Knittel, Ivo, Gothe, Marc, and Hartmann, Uwe. Tue . "Quantitative analysis of sputter processes in a small magnetron system". United States. doi:10.1116/1.2091197.
@article{osti_20723216,
title = {Quantitative analysis of sputter processes in a small magnetron system},
author = {Knittel, Ivo and Gothe, Marc and Hartmann, Uwe},
abstractNote = {Sputter deposition of titanium in argon from a small circular magnetron is characterized. The dependence of the deposition rate on pressure, power, and target-substrate distance has been measured. A framework for the application of the analytic approach by Keller and Simmons of ballistic and diffusive transport to simple three-dimensional sputter geometries is developed and applied. The sputter yield and the pressure-distance product are determined from the data set as the only fit parameters of the model. For the entire range of operation of the magnetron, the sputter process can be described in terms of the relatively simple approach.},
doi = {10.1116/1.2091197},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films},
number = 6,
volume = 23,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Nov 15 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Tue Nov 15 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}
  • We have demonstrated the possibility of depositing thick molybdenum films closed-end insulating tube using the post cathode magnetron sputter deposi tion configuration using a high sputtering gas pressure an a means for rem oving the surface charge buildup. (AIP)
  • The conformality of thin metal films (liners) formed on high-aspect-ratio trench structures in ionized magnetron sputter deposition processes is studied numerically and experimentally. The numerical simulator (SHADE) used to predict the surface topography is based on the shock-tracking method for surface evolution. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimentally observed thin-film topography. It is shown that combination of direct deposition and trench-bottom resputtering results in good conformality of step coverages and the amount of the resputtering needed for the good conformality is almost independent of trench aspect ratios. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}
  • A detailed investigation of the distinct processes in radio-frequency reactive magnetron plasma sputter deposition of SiO{sub x} films in a O{sub 2}/Ar atmosphere has been carried out, using the experimental evaluation of the individual growth rates of silicon and oxygen and of the ion impingement on the growth surface. Experimental variables are the total pressure, the oxygen partial pressure necessary to grow layers with 0{<=}x{<=}2, the RF power, the substrate temperature during deposition and the height of the cathode with respect to the growth surface. The various possible contributions to the silicon and oxygen incorporation on the growth surface havemore » been distinguished and the magnitude of their contribution estimated, including that of sputtered SiO molecules. A model concerning the oxygen coverage on the cathode erosion area during sputtering is discussed, including the transition from the metallic cathode to the poisoned, nonmetallic, cathode.« less
  • In this work, the energetic conditions at the substrate were investigated in dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS), pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (pDCMS), and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges by means of an energy flux diagnostic based on a thermopile sensor, the probe being set at the substrate position. Measurements were performed in front of a titanium target for a highly unbalanced magnetic field configuration. The average power was always kept to 400 W and the probe was at the floating potential. Variation of the energy flux against the pulse peak power in HiPIMS was first investigated. It was demonstratedmore » that the energy per deposited titanium atom is the highest for short pulses (5 {mu}s) high pulse peak power (39 kW), as in this case, the ion production is efficient and the deposition rate is reduced by self-sputtering. As the argon pressure is increased, the energy deposition is reduced as the probability of scattering in the gas phase is increased. In the case of the HiPIMS discharge run at moderate peak power density (10 kW), the energy per deposited atom was found to be lower than the one measured for DCMS and pDCMS discharges. In these conditions, the HiPIMS discharge could be characterized as soft and close to a pulsed DCMS discharge run at very low duty cycle. For the sake of comparison, measurements were also carried out in DCMS mode with a balanced magnetron cathode, in the same working conditions of pressure and power. The energy flux at the substrate is significantly increased as the discharge is generated in an unbalanced field.« less
  • The design, fabrication, and operation of a compact, portable, ultrahigh vacuum, two-target magnetron sputter deposition system, consisting of independently pumped sample-exchange and deposition chambers, is described. The target-to-substrate distance is 12.5 cm and, for alloy or superlattice growth, the substrate is typically placed at 45[degree] to both target surfaces. A novel shutter system composed of a hollow cylinder with a rectangular opening is mounted on a rotary feedthrough driven by a precision direct-current motor to controllably expose the substrate to sputter-ejected flux from one or both targets. Film thickness and composition uniformity are achieved through the use of selectively transmittingmore » shields which are first coated with target material to prevent film contamination. Automatic mass-flow controllers, responding to a differential feedback signal from a capacitance manometer, are used to maintain the pressure constant during deposition. The film growth temperature can be varied from ambient to 1000 [degree]C while adjusting the negative substrate bias from 0 to 500 V. In initial experiments using this system, epitaxial metastable Ti[sub 1[minus][ital x]]Al[sub [ital x]]N alloys and TiN/Ti[sub 1[minus][ital x]] Al[sub [ital x]]N superlattices were grown on MgO(001) and polycrystalline Ti[sub 1[minus][ital x]]Al[sub [ital x]]N alloys were deposited on oxidized Si(001) substrates.« less