skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Er{sup 3},Yb{sup 3+} nanowires

Abstract

In this paper, the upconversion luminescent properties of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Er{sup 3+},Yb{sup 3+} nanowires as a function of Yb concentration and excitation power were studied under 978-nm excitation. The results indicated that the relative intensity of the red emission ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) increased with increasing the Yb{sup 3+} concentration, while that of the green emission ({sup 4}S{sub 3/2}/{sup 2}H{sub 11/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) decreased. As a function of excitation power in ln-ln plot, the green emission of {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} yielded a slope of {approx}2, while the red emission of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} yielded a slope of {approx}1. Moreover, the slope decreased with increasing the Yb{sup 3+} concentration. This was well explained by the expanded theory of competition between linear decay and upconversion processes for the depletion of the intermediate excited states. As the excitation power density was high enough, the emission intensity of upconversion decreased due to thermal quenching. The thermal effect caused by the exposure of the 978-nm laser was studied according to the intensity ratio of {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} to {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}. The practical sample temperature at the exposed spot as a function of excitation power andmore » Yb{sup 3+} concentration was deduced. The result indicated that at the irradiated spot (0.5x0.5 mm{sup 2}) the practical temperature considerably increased.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Key Laboratory of Excited State Physics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20723196
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Chemical Physics; Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 17; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2087487; (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ERBIUM IONS; EXCITATION; EXCITED STATES; GADOLINIUM OXIDES; IRRADIATION; LUMINESCENCE; POWER DENSITY; QUANTUM WIRES; QUENCHING; WIRES; YTTERBIUM IONS

Citation Formats

Lei Yanqiang, Song Hongwei, Yang Linmei, Yu Lixin, Liu Zhongxin, Pan Guohui, Bai Xue, and Fan Libo. Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Er{sup 3},Yb{sup 3+} nanowires. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2087487.
Lei Yanqiang, Song Hongwei, Yang Linmei, Yu Lixin, Liu Zhongxin, Pan Guohui, Bai Xue, & Fan Libo. Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Er{sup 3},Yb{sup 3+} nanowires. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2087487.
Lei Yanqiang, Song Hongwei, Yang Linmei, Yu Lixin, Liu Zhongxin, Pan Guohui, Bai Xue, and Fan Libo. Tue . "Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Er{sup 3},Yb{sup 3+} nanowires". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2087487.
@article{osti_20723196,
title = {Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Er{sup 3},Yb{sup 3+} nanowires},
author = {Lei Yanqiang and Song Hongwei and Yang Linmei and Yu Lixin and Liu Zhongxin and Pan Guohui and Bai Xue and Fan Libo},
abstractNote = {In this paper, the upconversion luminescent properties of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Er{sup 3+},Yb{sup 3+} nanowires as a function of Yb concentration and excitation power were studied under 978-nm excitation. The results indicated that the relative intensity of the red emission ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) increased with increasing the Yb{sup 3+} concentration, while that of the green emission ({sup 4}S{sub 3/2}/{sup 2}H{sub 11/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) decreased. As a function of excitation power in ln-ln plot, the green emission of {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} yielded a slope of {approx}2, while the red emission of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} yielded a slope of {approx}1. Moreover, the slope decreased with increasing the Yb{sup 3+} concentration. This was well explained by the expanded theory of competition between linear decay and upconversion processes for the depletion of the intermediate excited states. As the excitation power density was high enough, the emission intensity of upconversion decreased due to thermal quenching. The thermal effect caused by the exposure of the 978-nm laser was studied according to the intensity ratio of {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} to {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}. The practical sample temperature at the exposed spot as a function of excitation power and Yb{sup 3+} concentration was deduced. The result indicated that at the irradiated spot (0.5x0.5 mm{sup 2}) the practical temperature considerably increased.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2087487},
journal = {Journal of Chemical Physics},
number = 17,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Tue Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}
  • Spherical SiO{sub 2} particles with different sizes (30, 80, 120, and 180 nm) have been coated with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} layers by a heterogeneous precipitation method, leading to the formation of core-shell structural Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+}@SiO{sub 2} particles. The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, upconversion (UC) emission spectra, and fluorescent dynamical analysis. The obtained core-shell particles have perfect spherical shape with narrow size distribution. Under the excitation of 980 nm diode laser, the core-shell samples showed size-dependent upconversion luminescence (UCL) properties. The inner SiO{sub 2} cores in core-shellmore » samples were proved to have limited effect on the total UCL intensities of Er{sup 3+} ions. The UCL intensities of core-shell particles were demonstrated much higher than the values obtained in pure Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} with the same phosphor volume. The dependence of the specific area of a UCL shell on the size of its inner SiO{sub 2} particle was calculated and analyzed for the first time. It was confirmed that the surface effect came from the outer surfaces of emitting shells is dominant in influencing the UCL property in the core-shell samples. Three-photon UC processes for the green emissions were observed in the samples with small sizes of SiO{sub 2} cores. The results of dynamical analysis illustrated that more nonradiative relaxation occurred in the core-shell samples with smaller SiO{sub 2} core sizes.« less
  • The Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanocrystals were synthesized by the sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electronic microscopy, and photoluminescence spectra were measured to verify the Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanocrystalline produced in the sample annealed at 800 °C. The anomalous slopes of the fitted line in the log-log plots for upconversion emissions and the pump-saturation effect of near-infrared emission were observed in the nanocrystalline samples. A theoretical model of practical Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped system based on the rate equations were put forward and explained the experimental phenomena well.
  • Graphical abstract: A comparative study on the concentration quenching behaviors of green down- and up-conversion emissions was carried out for the first time, and the different concentration quenching mechanisms were analyzed. Secondly, the thermal effect induced by 980 nm LD irradiation was investigated, it was observed that the equilibrium temperature of Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} sample was decided by both the excitation power and Er{sup 3+} doping concentration. Highlights: ► Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er/Yb phosphors were prepared via a co-precipitation reaction. ► Morphology and structure of the phosphors were characterized by XRD and SEM. ► Concentration quenching mechanismsmore » for down and up emissions were studied. ► Thermal effect induced by laser irradiation was studied via temperature sensing tech. - Abstract: Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} phosphors with various Er{sup 3+} concentrations and fixed Yb{sup 3+} concentration were synthesized via a co-precipitation method, and their crystal structure and morphology were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The concentration quenching behaviors of green up- and down-conversion emissions of Er{sup 3+} were analyzed, and it was confirmed that the difference between quenching concentration for up- and down-conversion emissions resulted from the different population routes. The temperature sensing properties of the Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphors were studied, and it was found that the Er{sup 3+} doping concentration slightly affected the sensitivity, and Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphors could be used in a broad temperature region for detecting temperature. Finally, the thermal effect induced by 980 nm LD irradiation was investigated, it was observed that the equilibrium temperature of Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} sample was decided by both the excitation power and Er{sup 3+} doping concentration.« less
  • Synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of the new BaGd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+} phosphor were reported in this paper. The phosphor powder was obtained by the traditional high temperature solid-state method, and its phase structure was characterized by the XRD pattern. Based on the upconversion luminescence properties studies, it is found that, under 980 nm semiconductor laser excitation, BaGd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+} phosphor exhibits intense green upconversion luminescence, which is ascribed to {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition of Er{sup 3+}. While the observed much weaker redmore » emission is due to the non-radiative relaxation process of {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} {yields} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition originating from the same Er{sup 3+}. The concentration quenching effects for both Yb{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} were found, and the optimum doping concentrations of 0.5 mol% Yb{sup 3+} and 0.08 mol% Er{sup 3+} in the new BaGd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4} Gd{sup 3+} host were established.« less
  • Graphical abstract: Well-shaped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes have been successfully synthesized on a large scale via layer-by-layer assembly on carbon nanotubes templates followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. The as-prepared Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes show a strong red emission corresponding to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}–{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition of the Er{sup 3+} ions under excitation at 980 nm. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Well-shaped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes have been successfully synthesized. ► CNTs were used as templates for Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes. ► LBL assembly and calcination were used for preparation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes. ► The as-preparedmore » Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes show a strong red emission. -- Abstract: Well-shaped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes have been successfully synthesized on a large scale via layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) templates followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. The crystal structure, element analysis, morphology and upconversion luminescence properties were characterized. XRD results demonstrate that the diffraction peaks of the samples calcinated at 800 °C or above can be indexed to the pure cubic phase of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. SEM images indicate that a large quantity of uniform and rough nanotubes with diameters of about 30–60 nm can be observed. The as-prepared Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb/Er nanotubes show a strong red emission corresponding to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}–{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition of the Er{sup 3+} ions under excitation at 980 nm, which have potential applications in such fields as nanoscale devices, molecular catalysts, nanobiotechnology, photonics and optoelectronics.« less