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Title: Deep-level defects introduced by 1 MeV electron radiation in AlInGaP for multijunction space solar cells

Abstract

Presented in this paper are 1 MeV electron irradiation effects on wide-band-gap (1.97 eV) (Al{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}){sub 0.52}In{sub 0.48}P diodes and solar cells. The carrier removal rate estimated in p-AlInGaP with electron fluence is about 1 cm{sup -1}, which is lower than that in InP and GaAs. From high-temperature deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements, a deep-level defect center such as majority-carrier (hole) trap H2 (E{sub {nu}}+0.90{+-}0.05 eV) was observed. The changes in carrier concentrations ({delta}p) and trap densities as a function of electron fluence were compared, and as a result the total introduction rate, 0.39 cm{sup -1}, of majority-carrier trap centers (H1 and H2) is different from the carrier removal rate, 1 cm{sup -1}, in p-AlInGaP. From the minority-carrier injection annealing (100 mA/cm{sup 2}), the annealing activation energy of H2 defect is {delta}E=0.60 eV, which is likely to be associated with a vacancy-phosphorus Frenkel pair (V{sub p}-P{sub i}). The recovery of defect concentration and carrier concentration in the irradiated p-AlInGaP by injection relates that a deep-level defect H2 acts as a recombination center as well as compensator center.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4]
  1. Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)
  2. (Australia)
  3. (United States)
  4. (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20719661
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 98; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2115095; (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS; ANNEALING; DEEP LEVEL TRANSIENT SPECTROSCOPY; ELECTRON BEAMS; EV RANGE 01-10; FRENKEL DEFECTS; GALLIUM ARSENIDES; GALLIUM PHOSPHIDES; INDIUM PHOSPHIDES; MEV RANGE 01-10; PHOSPHORUS; RECOMBINATION; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; SOLAR CELLS

Citation Formats

Lee, H.S., Yamaguchi, M., Ekins-Daukes, N. J., Khan, A., Takamoto, T., Agui, T., Kamimura, K., Kaneiwa, M., Imaizumi, M., Ohshima, T., Itoh, H., University of Sydney, School of Physics, New South Wales 2006, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36688, Sharp Corporation, 282-1 Hajikami, Shinjo, Nara 639-2198, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505, and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292. Deep-level defects introduced by 1 MeV electron radiation in AlInGaP for multijunction space solar cells. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2115095.
Lee, H.S., Yamaguchi, M., Ekins-Daukes, N. J., Khan, A., Takamoto, T., Agui, T., Kamimura, K., Kaneiwa, M., Imaizumi, M., Ohshima, T., Itoh, H., University of Sydney, School of Physics, New South Wales 2006, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36688, Sharp Corporation, 282-1 Hajikami, Shinjo, Nara 639-2198, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505, & Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292. Deep-level defects introduced by 1 MeV electron radiation in AlInGaP for multijunction space solar cells. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2115095.
Lee, H.S., Yamaguchi, M., Ekins-Daukes, N. J., Khan, A., Takamoto, T., Agui, T., Kamimura, K., Kaneiwa, M., Imaizumi, M., Ohshima, T., Itoh, H., University of Sydney, School of Physics, New South Wales 2006, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36688, Sharp Corporation, 282-1 Hajikami, Shinjo, Nara 639-2198, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505, and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292. Tue . "Deep-level defects introduced by 1 MeV electron radiation in AlInGaP for multijunction space solar cells". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2115095.
@article{osti_20719661,
title = {Deep-level defects introduced by 1 MeV electron radiation in AlInGaP for multijunction space solar cells},
author = {Lee, H.S. and Yamaguchi, M. and Ekins-Daukes, N. J. and Khan, A. and Takamoto, T. and Agui, T. and Kamimura, K. and Kaneiwa, M. and Imaizumi, M. and Ohshima, T. and Itoh, H. and University of Sydney, School of Physics, New South Wales 2006 and University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36688 and Sharp Corporation, 282-1 Hajikami, Shinjo, Nara 639-2198 and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292},
abstractNote = {Presented in this paper are 1 MeV electron irradiation effects on wide-band-gap (1.97 eV) (Al{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}){sub 0.52}In{sub 0.48}P diodes and solar cells. The carrier removal rate estimated in p-AlInGaP with electron fluence is about 1 cm{sup -1}, which is lower than that in InP and GaAs. From high-temperature deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements, a deep-level defect center such as majority-carrier (hole) trap H2 (E{sub {nu}}+0.90{+-}0.05 eV) was observed. The changes in carrier concentrations ({delta}p) and trap densities as a function of electron fluence were compared, and as a result the total introduction rate, 0.39 cm{sup -1}, of majority-carrier trap centers (H1 and H2) is different from the carrier removal rate, 1 cm{sup -1}, in p-AlInGaP. From the minority-carrier injection annealing (100 mA/cm{sup 2}), the annealing activation energy of H2 defect is {delta}E=0.60 eV, which is likely to be associated with a vacancy-phosphorus Frenkel pair (V{sub p}-P{sub i}). The recovery of defect concentration and carrier concentration in the irradiated p-AlInGaP by injection relates that a deep-level defect H2 acts as a recombination center as well as compensator center.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2115095},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 9,
volume = 98,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Tue Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}
  • The objective of this work is to investigate the deep-level defects induced by one-MeV electron irradiation in the (AlGa) As-GaAs solar cells subject to different irradiation and annealing conditions. Both undoped and Sn-doped GaAs cells were fabricated for this study. For Sn-doped GaAs cells, electron irradiation was performed for fluences of 1 X 10/sup 14/, 1 X 10/sup 15/, and 2 X 10/sup 16/ e/cm/sup 2/, and subsequently annealed at 230 /sup 0/C for 10, 20, 30, and 60 minutes. In addition, irradiation was also made on Sn-doped cells with flux rates of 4 X 10/sup 10/ and 2 Xmore » 10/sup 9/ e/cm/sup 2/-s and at cell's temperatures of 150 and 200 /sup 0/C. For undoped cells, irradiation was made at 200 /sup 0/C for two fluences (1 X 10/sup 14/ and 1 X 10/sup 15/ e/cm/sup 2/). DLTS and C-V measurements were performed on these cells to determine the defect and recombination parameters. Details of the results are presented in this paper.« less
  • A detailed study of the radiation induced deep - level defects in (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells irradiated by one-MeV electrons and low-energy protons has been carried out using Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) technique for different irradiation energies, fluences, fluxes, annealing temperatures and annealing times. Carrier removal rate, defect activation energies, carrier capture cross sections, minority carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths were determined from the C-V and DLTS measurements under different irradiation and annealing conditions. Results for both the electron and proton irradiation induced deep-level defects and their associated recombination parameters are presented in this paper.
  • High-efficiency, lightweight, radiation-resistant solar cells are essential to meet the large power requirements of future space missions. Single-junction cells are limited in efficiency. Higher cell efficiencies could be realized by developing multijunction, multibandgap solar cells. Monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem solar cells surpassing single-junction cell efficiencies have been fabricated. This article surveys the current status of monolithic and mechanically stacked multibandgap space solar cells, and outlines problems yet to be resolved. The monolithic and mechanically stacked cells each have their own problems related to size, processing, current and voltage matching, weight, and other factors. More information is needed on themore » effect of temperature and radiation on the cell performance. Proper reference cells and full-spectrum range simulators are also needed to measure efficiencies correctly. Cost issues are not addressed, since the two approaches are still in the developmental stage.« less