skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Quantum size effects in the surface energy of Pb/Si(111) film nanostructures studied by surface x-ray diffraction and model calculations

Abstract

We have used surface x-ray diffraction from a synchrotron source, along with models based upon a free-electron gas confined to a quantum well, to study quantum size effects in the surface energy of ultrathin Pb films grown on pretreated Si(111) substrates. Films grown at 110 K are smooth, but as they are annealed to near room temperature, their morphology is observed evolving through various metastable states and eventually to a roughened state in local equilibrium. Strong variations in the stability of different island heights are observed, consistent with quasibilayer oscillations in the surface energy found from the theoretical free-electron calculations. By analyzing the quasiequilibrium distribution of thicknesses, empirical information on the film surface energy is obtained for a wide range of thicknesses. The morphological annealing behavior of the films is also found to be explained by the deduced surface energy.

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States)
  2. Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2902 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20719336
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 72; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.075402; (c) 2005 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 1098-0121
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ANNEALING; DISTRIBUTION; ELECTRON GAS; ELECTRONS; EQUILIBRIUM; INTERFACES; LEAD; METASTABLE STATES; MORPHOLOGY; QUANTUM WELLS; SILICON; SUBSTRATES; SURFACE ENERGY; SURFACES; THICKNESS; THIN FILMS; VARIATIONS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Czoschke, P, Basile, L, Chiang, T -C, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2902, and Hong, Hawoong. Quantum size effects in the surface energy of Pb/Si(111) film nanostructures studied by surface x-ray diffraction and model calculations. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.72.075402.
Czoschke, P, Basile, L, Chiang, T -C, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2902, & Hong, Hawoong. Quantum size effects in the surface energy of Pb/Si(111) film nanostructures studied by surface x-ray diffraction and model calculations. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.72.075402.
Czoschke, P, Basile, L, Chiang, T -C, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2902, and Hong, Hawoong. Mon . "Quantum size effects in the surface energy of Pb/Si(111) film nanostructures studied by surface x-ray diffraction and model calculations". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.72.075402.
@article{osti_20719336,
title = {Quantum size effects in the surface energy of Pb/Si(111) film nanostructures studied by surface x-ray diffraction and model calculations},
author = {Czoschke, P and Basile, L and Chiang, T -C and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2902 and Hong, Hawoong},
abstractNote = {We have used surface x-ray diffraction from a synchrotron source, along with models based upon a free-electron gas confined to a quantum well, to study quantum size effects in the surface energy of ultrathin Pb films grown on pretreated Si(111) substrates. Films grown at 110 K are smooth, but as they are annealed to near room temperature, their morphology is observed evolving through various metastable states and eventually to a roughened state in local equilibrium. Strong variations in the stability of different island heights are observed, consistent with quasibilayer oscillations in the surface energy found from the theoretical free-electron calculations. By analyzing the quasiequilibrium distribution of thicknesses, empirical information on the film surface energy is obtained for a wide range of thicknesses. The morphological annealing behavior of the films is also found to be explained by the deduced surface energy.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.72.075402},
journal = {Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
issn = {1098-0121},
number = 7,
volume = 72,
place = {United States},
year = {2005},
month = {8}
}