skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Dynamics and instability of false vacuum bubbles

Abstract

This paper examines the classical dynamics of false-vacuum regions embedded in surrounding regions of true vacuum, in the thin-wall limit. The dynamics of all generally relativistically allowed solutions--most but not all of which have been previously studied--are derived, enumerated, and interpreted. We comment on the relation of these solutions to possible mechanisms whereby inflating regions may be spawned from noninflating ones. We then calculate the dynamics of first-order deviations from spherical symmetry, finding that many solutions are unstable to such aspherical perturbations. The parameter space in which the perturbations on bound solutions inevitably become nonlinear is mapped. This instability has consequences for the Farhi-Guth-Guven mechanism for baby universe production via quantum tunneling.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20711552
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review. D, Particles Fields; Journal Volume: 72; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.72.103525; (c) 2005 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; COSMOLOGY; INSTABILITY; MATHEMATICAL SOLUTIONS; NONLINEAR PROBLEMS; PERTURBATION THEORY; SYMMETRY; TUNNEL EFFECT; UNIVERSE

Citation Formats

Aguirre, Anthony, and Johnson, Matthew C. Dynamics and instability of false vacuum bubbles. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.72.103525.
Aguirre, Anthony, & Johnson, Matthew C. Dynamics and instability of false vacuum bubbles. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.72.103525.
Aguirre, Anthony, and Johnson, Matthew C. Tue . "Dynamics and instability of false vacuum bubbles". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.72.103525.
@article{osti_20711552,
title = {Dynamics and instability of false vacuum bubbles},
author = {Aguirre, Anthony and Johnson, Matthew C.},
abstractNote = {This paper examines the classical dynamics of false-vacuum regions embedded in surrounding regions of true vacuum, in the thin-wall limit. The dynamics of all generally relativistically allowed solutions--most but not all of which have been previously studied--are derived, enumerated, and interpreted. We comment on the relation of these solutions to possible mechanisms whereby inflating regions may be spawned from noninflating ones. We then calculate the dynamics of first-order deviations from spherical symmetry, finding that many solutions are unstable to such aspherical perturbations. The parameter space in which the perturbations on bound solutions inevitably become nonlinear is mapped. This instability has consequences for the Farhi-Guth-Guven mechanism for baby universe production via quantum tunneling.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.72.103525},
journal = {Physical Review. D, Particles Fields},
number = 10,
volume = 72,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Nov 15 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Tue Nov 15 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}
  • It is pointed out that there is no reason to believe that detachment of the false vacuum is ever achieved for nondegenerate real vacua in view of the instability of nondegenerate Killing horizons to the past of their bifurcation.
  • The possibility of localized inflation is investigated by calculating the dynamics of a spherically symmetric region of false vacuum which is separated by a domain wall from an infinite region of true vacuum. For a range of initial conditions, the false-vacuum region will undergo inflation. An observer in the exterior true-vacuum region will describe the system as a black hole, while an observer in the interior will describe a closed universe which completely disconnects from the original spacetime. We suggest that this mechanism is likely to lead to an instability of Minkowski space: a region of space might undergo amore » quantum fluctuation into the false-vacuum state, evolving into an isolated closed universe; the black hole which remains in the original space would disappear by quantum evaporation. The formation of these isolated closed universes may also be relevant to the question of information loss in black-hole formation.« less
  • We study the dynamics of false vacuum bubbles. A nonminimally coupled scalar field gives rise to the effect of negative tension. The mass of a false vacuum bubble from an outside observer's point of view can be positive, zero, or negative. The interior false vacuum has de Sitter geometry, while the exterior true vacuum background can have geometry depending on the vacuum energy. We show that there exist expanding false vacuum bubbles without the initial singularity in the past.
  • We study the dynamics of false vacuum bubbles in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity by using the thin shell or thin wall approximation. We consider a false vacuum bubble that has a different value for the Brans-Dicke field between the inside false vacuum region and the outside true vacuum region. Within a certain limit of field values, the difference of field values makes the effective tension of the shell negative. This allows new expanding false vacuum bubbles to be seen by the outside observer, which are disallowed in Einstein gravity.
  • We show that a small bubble of false vacuum can tunnel to the critical size for inflation, and calculate the amplitude in leading WKB approximation. An initially nonsingular space becomes an exterior space plus a baby universe (which contains the bubble), joined by a black-hole singularity. We work in a Hamiltonian formalism; the corresponding Euclidean bounce is shown to have a degenerate vierbein.