# The power of general relativity

## Abstract

We study the cosmological and weak-field properties of theories of gravity derived by extending general relativity by means of a Lagrangian proportional to R{sup 1+{delta}}. This scale-free extension reduces to general relativity when {delta}{yields}0. In order to constrain generalizations of general relativity of this power class, we analyze the behavior of the perfect-fluid Friedmann universes and isolate the physically relevant models of zero curvature. A stable matter-dominated period of evolution requires {delta}>0 or {delta}<-1/4. The stable attractors of the evolution are found. By considering the synthesis of light elements (helium-4, deuterium and lithium-7) we obtain the bound -0.017<{delta}<0.0012. We evaluate the effect on the power spectrum of clustering via the shift in the epoch of matter-radiation equality. The horizon size at matter-radiation equality will be shifted by {approx}1% for a value of {delta}{approx}0.0005. We study the stable extensions of the Schwarzschild solution in these theories and calculate the timelike and null geodesics. No significant bounds arise from null geodesic effects but the perihelion precession observations lead to the strong bound {delta}=2.7{+-}4.5x10{sup -19} assuming that Mercury follows a timelike geodesic. The combination of these observational constraints leads to the overall bound 0{<=}{delta}<7.2x10{sup -19} on theories of this type.

- Authors:

- DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

- Publication Date:

- OSTI Identifier:
- 20711523

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article

- Resource Relation:
- Journal Name: Physical Review. D, Particles Fields; Journal Volume: 72; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.72.103005; (c) 2005 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; ATTRACTORS; COSMOLOGY; DEUTERIUM; DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY; ENERGY SPECTRA; GENERAL RELATIVITY THEORY; GEODESICS; GRAVITATION; HELIUM 4; IDEAL FLOW; LAGRANGIAN FUNCTION; LITHIUM 7; NUCLEOSYNTHESIS; SCHWARZSCHILD METRIC; SPACE-TIME; UNIVERSE

### Citation Formats

```
Clifton, Timothy, and Barrow, John D.
```*The power of general relativity*. United States: N. p., 2005.
Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.72.103005.

```
Clifton, Timothy, & Barrow, John D.
```*The power of general relativity*. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.72.103005.

```
Clifton, Timothy, and Barrow, John D. Tue .
"The power of general relativity". United States.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.72.103005.
```

```
@article{osti_20711523,
```

title = {The power of general relativity},

author = {Clifton, Timothy and Barrow, John D.},

abstractNote = {We study the cosmological and weak-field properties of theories of gravity derived by extending general relativity by means of a Lagrangian proportional to R{sup 1+{delta}}. This scale-free extension reduces to general relativity when {delta}{yields}0. In order to constrain generalizations of general relativity of this power class, we analyze the behavior of the perfect-fluid Friedmann universes and isolate the physically relevant models of zero curvature. A stable matter-dominated period of evolution requires {delta}>0 or {delta}<-1/4. The stable attractors of the evolution are found. By considering the synthesis of light elements (helium-4, deuterium and lithium-7) we obtain the bound -0.017<{delta}<0.0012. We evaluate the effect on the power spectrum of clustering via the shift in the epoch of matter-radiation equality. The horizon size at matter-radiation equality will be shifted by {approx}1% for a value of {delta}{approx}0.0005. We study the stable extensions of the Schwarzschild solution in these theories and calculate the timelike and null geodesics. No significant bounds arise from null geodesic effects but the perihelion precession observations lead to the strong bound {delta}=2.7{+-}4.5x10{sup -19} assuming that Mercury follows a timelike geodesic. The combination of these observational constraints leads to the overall bound 0{<=}{delta}<7.2x10{sup -19} on theories of this type.},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.72.103005},

journal = {Physical Review. D, Particles Fields},

number = 10,

volume = 72,

place = {United States},

year = {Tue Nov 15 00:00:00 EST 2005},

month = {Tue Nov 15 00:00:00 EST 2005}

}