skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: p type doping of zinc oxide by arsenic ion implantation

Abstract

p type doping of polycrystalline ZnO thin films, by implantation of arsenic ions, is demonstrated. The approach consisted of carrying out the implantations at liquid-nitrogen temperature ({approx}-196 deg. C), followed by a rapid in situ heating of the sample, at 560 deg. C for 10 min, and ex situ annealing at 900 deg. C for 45 min in flowing oxygen. p type conductivity with a hole concentration of 2.5x10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} was obtained using this approach, following implantation of 150 keV 5x10{sup 14} As/cm{sup 2}. A conventional room-temperature implantation of 1x10{sup 15} As/cm{sup 2}, followed by the same ex situ annealing, resulted in n type conductivity with a carrier concentration of 1.7x10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. (Israel)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20706453
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 19; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2128064; (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ANNEALING; ARSENIC IONS; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; ELECTRON DENSITY; HEATING; HOLES; ION IMPLANTATION; KEV RANGE 100-1000; OXYGEN; POLYCRYSTALS; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0400-1000 K; THIN FILMS; ZINC OXIDES

Citation Formats

Braunstein, G., Muraviev, A., Saxena, H., Dhere, N., Richter, V., Kalish, R., Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, Florida 32922, and Solid State Institute and Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000. p type doping of zinc oxide by arsenic ion implantation. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2128064.
Braunstein, G., Muraviev, A., Saxena, H., Dhere, N., Richter, V., Kalish, R., Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, Florida 32922, & Solid State Institute and Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000. p type doping of zinc oxide by arsenic ion implantation. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2128064.
Braunstein, G., Muraviev, A., Saxena, H., Dhere, N., Richter, V., Kalish, R., Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, Florida 32922, and Solid State Institute and Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000. Mon . "p type doping of zinc oxide by arsenic ion implantation". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2128064.
@article{osti_20706453,
title = {p type doping of zinc oxide by arsenic ion implantation},
author = {Braunstein, G. and Muraviev, A. and Saxena, H. and Dhere, N. and Richter, V. and Kalish, R. and Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, Florida 32922 and Solid State Institute and Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000},
abstractNote = {p type doping of polycrystalline ZnO thin films, by implantation of arsenic ions, is demonstrated. The approach consisted of carrying out the implantations at liquid-nitrogen temperature ({approx}-196 deg. C), followed by a rapid in situ heating of the sample, at 560 deg. C for 10 min, and ex situ annealing at 900 deg. C for 45 min in flowing oxygen. p type conductivity with a hole concentration of 2.5x10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} was obtained using this approach, following implantation of 150 keV 5x10{sup 14} As/cm{sup 2}. A conventional room-temperature implantation of 1x10{sup 15} As/cm{sup 2}, followed by the same ex situ annealing, resulted in n type conductivity with a carrier concentration of 1.7x10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2128064},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 19,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Nov 07 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Mon Nov 07 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}
  • As-doped ZnO films were grown by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. As the substrate temperature during growth was raised above approx400 deg. C, the films changed from n type to p type. Hole concentration and mobility of approx6x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and approx6 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} were achieved. The ZnO films were studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low temperature photoluminescence (PL), and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The results were consistent with the As{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn} shallow acceptor model proposed by Limpijumnong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 155504 (2004)]. The resultsmore » of the XPS, PL, PAS, and thermal studies lead us to suggest a comprehensive picture of the As-related shallow acceptor formation.« less
  • {ital p}-type ion-implantation doping of Al{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}Sb is reported. The surface morphology and electrical properties of Al{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}Sb are shown by atomic force microscopy and Hall measurements to be degraded after rapid thermal annealing of 650{degree}C. Implantation of Be and Mg results in sheet hole concentrations twice that of the implanted acceptor dose of 1{times}10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}2} following a 600{degree}C anneal. This is explained in terms of double acceptor or antisite defect formation. Implanted C acts as an acceptor but also demonstrates excess hole conduction attributed to implantation-induced defects. Implanted Zn requires higher annealing temperatures than Bemore » and Mg to achieve 100{percent} effective activation for a dose of 1{times}10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}2} probably as a result of more implantation-induced damage created from the heavier Zn ion. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy of as-implanted and annealed Be, Mg, and C samples are presented. Diffusion of implanted Be (5{times}10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}2}, 45 keV) is shown to have an inverse dependence on temperature that is attributed to a substitutional-interstitial diffusion mechanism. Implanted Mg (1{times}10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}2}, 110 keV) shows dramatic redistribution and loss at the surface of up to 56{percent} after a 600{degree}C anneal. Implanted C (2.5{times}10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}2}, 70 keV) displays no redistribution even after a 650{degree}C anneal. This work lays the foundation for using ion-implantation doping in high performance AlGaSb/InGaSb-based {ital p}-channel field-effect transistors.« less
  • P2-type sodium nickel manganese oxide-based cathode materials with higher energy densities are prime candidates for applications in rechargeable sodium ion batteries. A systematic study combining in situ high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), ex situ Xray absorption fine spectroscopy (XAFS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) techniques was carried out to gain a deep insight into the structural evolution of P2-Na 0.66Ni 0.33-xZn xMn 0.67O 2 (x = 0, 0.07) during cycling. In situ HEXRD and ex situ TEM measurements indicate that an irreversible phase transition occurs upon sodium insertion-extraction of Na 0.66Ni 0.33Mn 0.67O 2. Zincmore » doping of this system results in a high structural reversibility. XAFS measurements indicate that both materials are almost completely dependent on the Ni 4+/Ni 3+/ Ni 2+ redox couple to provide charge/discharge capacity. SS-NMR measurements indicate that both reversible and irreversible migration of transition metal ions into the sodium layer occurs in the material at the fully charged state. The irreversible migration of transition metal ions triggers a structural distortion, leading to the observed capacity and voltage fading. Our results allow a new understanding of the importance of improving the stability of transition metal layers.« less
  • In this study, the impact of aluminum ion implantation (Al I/I) on random telegraph noise (RTN) in high-k/metal gate (HK/MG) p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (pMOSFETs) was investigated. The trap parameters of HK/MG pMOSFETs with Al I/I, such as trap energy level, capture time and emission time, activation energies for capture and emission, and trap location in the gate dielectric, were determined. The configuration coordinate diagram was also established. It was observed that the implanted Al could fill defects and form a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer and thus increase the tunneling barrier height for holes. It was also observed that themore » trap position in the Al I/I samples was lower due to the Al I/I-induced dipole at the HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interface.« less