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Title: It Matters Which Way You Slice It: Risk Management for the 2005 Procurement Auction of Italy's Acquirente Unico

Abstract

As the single buyer in Italy for retail consumers not eligible for competitive supply as well as eligible customers who do not choose a competitive supplier, the Acquirente Unico purchases roughly half of Italy's electricity. Here are some of the key risk management considerations that were involved in its 2005 procurement.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20685973
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Electricity Journal; Journal Volume: 19; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; ITALY; RISK ASSESSMENT; ELECTRICITY; MARKET

Citation Formats

Fraser, Hamish, and Lanza, Salvatore. It Matters Which Way You Slice It: Risk Management for the 2005 Procurement Auction of Italy's Acquirente Unico. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1016/j.tej.2005.11.007.
Fraser, Hamish, & Lanza, Salvatore. It Matters Which Way You Slice It: Risk Management for the 2005 Procurement Auction of Italy's Acquirente Unico. United States. doi:10.1016/j.tej.2005.11.007.
Fraser, Hamish, and Lanza, Salvatore. Wed . "It Matters Which Way You Slice It: Risk Management for the 2005 Procurement Auction of Italy's Acquirente Unico". United States. doi:10.1016/j.tej.2005.11.007.
@article{osti_20685973,
title = {It Matters Which Way You Slice It: Risk Management for the 2005 Procurement Auction of Italy's Acquirente Unico},
author = {Fraser, Hamish and Lanza, Salvatore},
abstractNote = {As the single buyer in Italy for retail consumers not eligible for competitive supply as well as eligible customers who do not choose a competitive supplier, the Acquirente Unico purchases roughly half of Italy's electricity. Here are some of the key risk management considerations that were involved in its 2005 procurement.},
doi = {10.1016/j.tej.2005.11.007},
journal = {Electricity Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 19,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Risk assessment in waste management is more critical than ever as we move to greater need for beneficial use of residuals like treated municipal sludge. Congress has ordered an end to ocean dumping of sludge by Dec. 31, 1991, and more states are considering bans to landfilling of sludge. Land-based utilization alternatives have always had opponents, with some claiming that all sludges are dirty sludges with disease-laden dangers. The latest flurry of newspaper accounts - citing a report by Cornell University toxicology professor Donald Lisk - warns that significant traces of cancer-causing asbestos from sludge fertilizer may be collected onmore » agricultural lands, golf courses and suburban lawns. Golfers could inhale asbestos while hunting for lost balls, noted Lisk, who says he would recommend incineration of sludge rather than any of the other disposal methods. In a BioCycle interview last year, Dr. Terry Logan, soil scientist at Ohio State University, related the results of a study on the safety of landspreading sludge that was a cooperative research effort with various departments including the school of medicine and veterinary medicine. Their studies indicated the benefits of sludge far outweighed the risks. Disease pathogens were not a problem. Other potentially risky materials, synthetic organic compounds and heavy metals, could be controlled. Perception is not a proper gauge. With spreading sludge on land, the perception of the risks has always been greater than the real risks. It takes great effort to manage and utilize wastes in the public interest. It also requires more sense, than sensationalism, when reporting developments to the public.« less
  • Purpose: To determine patient-specific absorbed peak doses to skin, eye lens, brain parenchyma, and cranial red bone marrow (RBM) of adult individuals subjected to low-dose brain perfusion CT studies on a 256-slice CT scanner, and investigate the effect of patient head size/shape, head position during the examination and bowtie filter used on peak tissue doses. Methods: The peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were measured in 106 individual-specific adult head phantoms subjected to the standard low-dose brain perfusion CT on a 256-slice CT scanner using a novel Monte Carlo simulation software dedicated for patient CT dosimetry. Peakmore » tissue doses were compared to corresponding thresholds for induction of cataract, erythema, cerebrovascular disease, and depression of hematopoiesis, respectively. The effects of patient head size/shape, head position during acquisition and bowtie filter used on resulting peak patient tissue doses were investigated. The effect of eye-lens position in the scanned head region was also investigated. The effect of miscentering and use of narrow bowtie filter on image quality was assessed. Results: The mean peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were found to be 124, 120, 95, and 163 mGy, respectively. The effect of patient head size and shape on peak tissue doses was found to be minimal since maximum differences were less than 7%. Patient head miscentering and bowtie filter selection were found to have a considerable effect on peak tissue doses. The peak eye-lens dose saving achieved by elevating head by 4 cm with respect to isocenter and using a narrow wedge filter was found to approach 50%. When the eye lies outside of the primarily irradiated head region, the dose to eye lens was found to drop to less than 20% of the corresponding dose measured when the eye lens was located in the middle of the x-ray beam. Positioning head phantom off-isocenter by 4 cm and employing a narrow wedge filter results in a moderate reduction of signal-to-noise ratio mainly to the peripheral region of the phantom. Conclusions: Despite typical peak doses to skin, eye lens, brain, and RBM from the standard low-dose brain perfusion 256-slice CT protocol are well below the corresponding thresholds for the induction of erythema, cataract, cerebrovascular disease, and depression of hematopoiesis, respectively, every effort should be made toward optimization of the procedure and minimization of dose received by these tissues. The current study provides evidence that the use of the narrower bowtie filter available may considerably reduce peak absorbed dose to all above radiosensitive tissues with minimal deterioration in image quality. Considerable reduction in peak eye-lens dose may also be achieved by positioning patient head center a few centimeters above isocenter during the exposure.« less
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