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Title: Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the morphology and chemistry of a PdCl{sub 2}/SnCl{sub 2} electroless plating catalysis system adsorbed onto shape memory alloy particles

Abstract

A study of the different stages of the electroless deposition of copper on micronic NiTi shape memory alloy particles activated by one-step and two-step methods has been conducted from both a chemical and a morphological point of view. The combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has allowed detection of the distribution of the formed compounds and depth quantification and estimation of the surface topographic parameters. For the two-step method, at the sensitization of the early stages, it is observed by AFM that Sn is absorbed in form of clusters that tend to completely cover the surface and form a continuous film. XPS analysis have shown that Sn and Pd are first absorbed in form of oxide (SnO{sub 2} and PdO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 4}]. After the entire sensitization step, the NiTi substrate is covered with Sn-based compounds. After the sensitization and the activation steps the powder roughness increases. Behavior of the Sn and Pd growth for the one-step method does not follow the behavior found for the two-step method. Indeed, XPS analysis shows a three-dimensional (3D) growth of Pd clusters on top of a mixture of metallic tin, oxide (SnO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){submore » 2}]. These Pd clusters are covered with a thin layer of Pd-oxide contamination induced by the electroless process. The mean roughness for the one-step and two-step processes are equivalent. After copper deposition, the decrease of mean roughness is attributed to a filling of surface valleys, observed after the Sn-Pd coating step.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux (ICMCB) - CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 87 Avenue du Dr A. Schweitzer, F-33608 PESSAC (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20662143
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 96; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.1787625; (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ADSORPTION; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; COPPER; HYDROXIDES; MORPHOLOGY; NICKEL ALLOYS; PALLADIUM; PALLADIUM CHLORIDES; PALLADIUM OXIDES; PLATING; POWDERS; ROUGHNESS; SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT; THIN FILMS; TIN; TIN CHLORIDES; TIN OXIDES; TITANIUM ALLOYS; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Silvain, J F, Fouassier, O, Lescaux, S, and Veeco, Z.I. de la Gaudree, 11 Rue Marie Poussepin, F-91412 Dourdain. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the morphology and chemistry of a PdCl{sub 2}/SnCl{sub 2} electroless plating catalysis system adsorbed onto shape memory alloy particles. United States: N. p., 2004. Web. doi:10.1063/1.1787625.
Silvain, J F, Fouassier, O, Lescaux, S, & Veeco, Z.I. de la Gaudree, 11 Rue Marie Poussepin, F-91412 Dourdain. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the morphology and chemistry of a PdCl{sub 2}/SnCl{sub 2} electroless plating catalysis system adsorbed onto shape memory alloy particles. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1787625
Silvain, J F, Fouassier, O, Lescaux, S, and Veeco, Z.I. de la Gaudree, 11 Rue Marie Poussepin, F-91412 Dourdain. 2004. "Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the morphology and chemistry of a PdCl{sub 2}/SnCl{sub 2} electroless plating catalysis system adsorbed onto shape memory alloy particles". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1787625.
@article{osti_20662143,
title = {Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the morphology and chemistry of a PdCl{sub 2}/SnCl{sub 2} electroless plating catalysis system adsorbed onto shape memory alloy particles},
author = {Silvain, J F and Fouassier, O and Lescaux, S and Veeco, Z.I. de la Gaudree, 11 Rue Marie Poussepin, F-91412 Dourdain},
abstractNote = {A study of the different stages of the electroless deposition of copper on micronic NiTi shape memory alloy particles activated by one-step and two-step methods has been conducted from both a chemical and a morphological point of view. The combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has allowed detection of the distribution of the formed compounds and depth quantification and estimation of the surface topographic parameters. For the two-step method, at the sensitization of the early stages, it is observed by AFM that Sn is absorbed in form of clusters that tend to completely cover the surface and form a continuous film. XPS analysis have shown that Sn and Pd are first absorbed in form of oxide (SnO{sub 2} and PdO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 4}]. After the entire sensitization step, the NiTi substrate is covered with Sn-based compounds. After the sensitization and the activation steps the powder roughness increases. Behavior of the Sn and Pd growth for the one-step method does not follow the behavior found for the two-step method. Indeed, XPS analysis shows a three-dimensional (3D) growth of Pd clusters on top of a mixture of metallic tin, oxide (SnO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 2}]. These Pd clusters are covered with a thin layer of Pd-oxide contamination induced by the electroless process. The mean roughness for the one-step and two-step processes are equivalent. After copper deposition, the decrease of mean roughness is attributed to a filling of surface valleys, observed after the Sn-Pd coating step.},
doi = {10.1063/1.1787625},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20662143}, journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
issn = {0021-8979},
number = 9,
volume = 96,
place = {United States},
year = {2004},
month = {11}
}