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Title: Fast CCD camera for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved x-ray scattering and imaging

Abstract

A new, fast x-ray detector system is presented for high-throughput, high-sensitivity, time-resolved, x-ray scattering and imaging experiments, most especially x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). After a review of the architectures of different CCD chips and a critical examination of their suitability for use in a fast x-ray detector, the new detector hardware is described. In brief, its principal component is an inexpensive, commercial camera - the SMD1M60 - originally designed for optical applications, and modified for use as a direct-illumination x-ray detector. The remainder of the system consists of two Coreco Imaging PC-DIG frame grabber boards, located inside a Dell Power-edge 6400 server. Each frame grabber sits on its own PCI bus and handles data from 2 of the CCD's 4 taps. The SMD1M60 is based on a fast, frame-transfer, 4-tap CCD chip, read out at12-bit resolution at frame rates of up to 62 Hz for full frame readout and up to 500 Hz for one-sixteenth frame readout. Experiments to characterize the camera's suitability for XPCS and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) are presented. These experiments show that single photon events are readily identified, and localized to within a pixel index or so. This is a sufficiently fine spatial resolution tomore » maintain the speckle contrast at an acceptable value for XPCS measurements. The detective quantum efficiency of the SMD1M60 is 49% for directly-detected 6.3 keV x rays. The effects of data acquisition strategies that permit near-real-time data compression are also determined and discussed. Overall, the SMD1M60 detector system represents a major improvement in the technology for time-resolved x-ray experiments, that require an area detector with time-resolutions in few-milliseconds-to-few-seconds range, and it should have wide applications, extending beyond XPCS.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20643986
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 75; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.1808913; (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ARCHITECTURE; CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICES; DATA ACQUISITION; KEV RANGE 01-10; PHOTONS; QUANTUM EFFICIENCY; READOUT SYSTEMS; SMALL ANGLE SCATTERING; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; TIME RESOLUTION; X-RAY DETECTION; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Falus, P, Borthwick, M A, Mochrie, S G.J., Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, and Departments of Physics and Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520. Fast CCD camera for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved x-ray scattering and imaging. United States: N. p., 2004. Web. doi:10.1063/1.1808913.
Falus, P, Borthwick, M A, Mochrie, S G.J., Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, & Departments of Physics and Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520. Fast CCD camera for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved x-ray scattering and imaging. United States. doi:10.1063/1.1808913.
Falus, P, Borthwick, M A, Mochrie, S G.J., Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, and Departments of Physics and Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520. Mon . "Fast CCD camera for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved x-ray scattering and imaging". United States. doi:10.1063/1.1808913.
@article{osti_20643986,
title = {Fast CCD camera for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved x-ray scattering and imaging},
author = {Falus, P and Borthwick, M A and Mochrie, S G.J. and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 and Departments of Physics and Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520},
abstractNote = {A new, fast x-ray detector system is presented for high-throughput, high-sensitivity, time-resolved, x-ray scattering and imaging experiments, most especially x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). After a review of the architectures of different CCD chips and a critical examination of their suitability for use in a fast x-ray detector, the new detector hardware is described. In brief, its principal component is an inexpensive, commercial camera - the SMD1M60 - originally designed for optical applications, and modified for use as a direct-illumination x-ray detector. The remainder of the system consists of two Coreco Imaging PC-DIG frame grabber boards, located inside a Dell Power-edge 6400 server. Each frame grabber sits on its own PCI bus and handles data from 2 of the CCD's 4 taps. The SMD1M60 is based on a fast, frame-transfer, 4-tap CCD chip, read out at12-bit resolution at frame rates of up to 62 Hz for full frame readout and up to 500 Hz for one-sixteenth frame readout. Experiments to characterize the camera's suitability for XPCS and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) are presented. These experiments show that single photon events are readily identified, and localized to within a pixel index or so. This is a sufficiently fine spatial resolution to maintain the speckle contrast at an acceptable value for XPCS measurements. The detective quantum efficiency of the SMD1M60 is 49% for directly-detected 6.3 keV x rays. The effects of data acquisition strategies that permit near-real-time data compression are also determined and discussed. Overall, the SMD1M60 detector system represents a major improvement in the technology for time-resolved x-ray experiments, that require an area detector with time-resolutions in few-milliseconds-to-few-seconds range, and it should have wide applications, extending beyond XPCS.},
doi = {10.1063/1.1808913},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
issn = {0034-6748},
number = 11,
volume = 75,
place = {United States},
year = {2004},
month = {11}
}