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Title: Flyer Acceleration by Pulsed Ion Beam Ablation and Application for Space Propulsion

Abstract

Flyer acceleration by ablation plasma pressure produced by irradiation of intense pulsed ion beam has been studied. Acceleration process including expansion of ablation plasma was simulated based on fluid model. And interaction between incident pulsed ion beam and a flyer target was considered as accounting stopping power of it. In experiments, we used ETIGO-II intense pulsed ion beam generator with two kinds of diodes; 1) Magnetically Insulated Diode (MID, power densities of <100 J/cm2) and 2) Spherical-focused Plasma Focus Diode (SPFD, power densities of up to 4.3 kJ/cm2). Numerical results of accelerated flyer velocity agreed well with measured one over wide range of incident ion beam energy density. Flyer velocity of 5.6 km/s and ablation plasma pressure of 15 GPa was demonstrated by the present experiments. Acceleration of double-layer target consists of gold/aluminum was studied. For adequate layer thickness, such a flyer target could be much more accelerated than a single layer. Effect of waveform of ion beam was also examined. Parabolic waveform could accelerate more efficiently than rectangular waveform. Applicability of ablation propulsion was discussed. Specific impulse of 7000{approx}8000 seconds and time averaged thrust of up to 5000{approx}6000N can be expected. Their values can be controllable by changing powermore » density of incident ion beam and pulse duration.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]; ;  [3]
  1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)
  2. Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima National College of Technology, 1460-1 Shinko, Hayato-cho, Aira-gun, Kagoshima 899-5193 (Japan)
  3. Extreme Energy Density Research Institute, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20632860
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 699; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: STAIF 2004: 21. symposium on space nuclear power and propulsion: Human space exploration, space colonization, new frontiers and future concepts, Albuquerque, NM (United States), 8-11 Feb 2004; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.1649694; (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ABLATION; ACCELERATION; ALUMINIUM; ENERGY DENSITY; GOLD; ION BEAMS; LAYERS; NUMERICAL ANALYSIS; PLASMA; PLASMA EXPANSION; PLASMA FOCUS; PLASMA PRESSURE; POWER DENSITY; PRESSURE RANGE GIGA PA; PROPULSION; PULSES; SPACE VEHICLES; SPHERICAL CONFIGURATION; STOPPING POWER; USES; WAVE FORMS

Citation Formats

Harada, Nobuhiro, Buttapeng, Chainarong, Yazawa, Masaru, Kashine, Kenji, Jiang Weihua, and Yatsui, Kiyoshi. Flyer Acceleration by Pulsed Ion Beam Ablation and Application for Space Propulsion. United States: N. p., 2004. Web. doi:10.1063/1.1649694.
Harada, Nobuhiro, Buttapeng, Chainarong, Yazawa, Masaru, Kashine, Kenji, Jiang Weihua, & Yatsui, Kiyoshi. Flyer Acceleration by Pulsed Ion Beam Ablation and Application for Space Propulsion. United States. doi:10.1063/1.1649694.
Harada, Nobuhiro, Buttapeng, Chainarong, Yazawa, Masaru, Kashine, Kenji, Jiang Weihua, and Yatsui, Kiyoshi. 2004. "Flyer Acceleration by Pulsed Ion Beam Ablation and Application for Space Propulsion". United States. doi:10.1063/1.1649694.
@article{osti_20632860,
title = {Flyer Acceleration by Pulsed Ion Beam Ablation and Application for Space Propulsion},
author = {Harada, Nobuhiro and Buttapeng, Chainarong and Yazawa, Masaru and Kashine, Kenji and Jiang Weihua and Yatsui, Kiyoshi},
abstractNote = {Flyer acceleration by ablation plasma pressure produced by irradiation of intense pulsed ion beam has been studied. Acceleration process including expansion of ablation plasma was simulated based on fluid model. And interaction between incident pulsed ion beam and a flyer target was considered as accounting stopping power of it. In experiments, we used ETIGO-II intense pulsed ion beam generator with two kinds of diodes; 1) Magnetically Insulated Diode (MID, power densities of <100 J/cm2) and 2) Spherical-focused Plasma Focus Diode (SPFD, power densities of up to 4.3 kJ/cm2). Numerical results of accelerated flyer velocity agreed well with measured one over wide range of incident ion beam energy density. Flyer velocity of 5.6 km/s and ablation plasma pressure of 15 GPa was demonstrated by the present experiments. Acceleration of double-layer target consists of gold/aluminum was studied. For adequate layer thickness, such a flyer target could be much more accelerated than a single layer. Effect of waveform of ion beam was also examined. Parabolic waveform could accelerate more efficiently than rectangular waveform. Applicability of ablation propulsion was discussed. Specific impulse of 7000{approx}8000 seconds and time averaged thrust of up to 5000{approx}6000N can be expected. Their values can be controllable by changing power density of incident ion beam and pulse duration.},
doi = {10.1063/1.1649694},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 699,
place = {United States},
year = 2004,
month = 2
}
  • We propose novel propulsion driven by ablation plasma pressures produced by the irradiation of pulsed ion beams onto a propellant. The ion beam ablation propulsion demonstrates by a thin foil (50 {mu}mt), and the flyer velocity of 7.7 km/s at the ion beam energy density of 2 kJ/cm2 adopted by using the Time-of-flight method is observed numerically and experimentally. We estimate the performance of the ion beam ablation propulsion as specific impulse of 3600 s and impulse bit density of 1700 Ns/m2 obtained from the demonstration results. In the numerical analysis, a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model with ion beam energy depositionsmore » is used. The control of the ion beam kinetic energy is only improvement of the performance but also propellant consumption. The spacecraft driven by the ion beam ablation provides high performance efficiency with short-pulsed ion beam irradiation. The numerical results of the advanced model explained latent heat and real gas equation of state agreed well with experimental ones over a wide range of the incident ion beam energy density.« less
  • This paper presents the hydrodynamic efficiency of ablation plasma produced by pulsed ion beam on the basis of the ion beam-target interaction. We used a one-dimensional hydrodynamic fluid compressible to study the physics involved namely an ablation acceleration behavior and analyzed it as a rocketlike model in order to investigate its hydrodynamic variables for propulsion applications. These variables were estimated by the concept of ablation driven implosion in terms of ablated mass fraction, implosion efficiency, and hydrodynamic energy conversion. Herein, the energy conversion efficiency of 17.5% was achieved. In addition, the results show maximum energy efficiency of the ablation processmore » (ablation efficiency) of 67% meaning the efficiency with which pulsed ion beam energy-ablation plasma conversion. The effects of ion beam energy deposition depth to hydrodynamic efficiency were briefly discussed. Further, an evaluation of propulsive force with high specific impulse of 4000s, total impulse of 34mN and momentum to energy ratio in the range of {mu}N/W was also analyzed.« less
  • A fundamental study of a newly developed rectangular pulsed laser-electromagnetic hybrid thruster was conducted, in which laser-ablation plasma was induced through laser beam irradiation onto a solid target and accelerated by electrical means instead of direct acceleration only by using a laser beam. The performance of the thruster was evaluated by measuring the mass per shot and impulse bit. As results, significantly high specific impulse ranging from 5,000 approx6,000 sec were obtained at energies of 0.1 and 8.6 J, respectively. In addition, the typical thrust efficiency varied from 17% to 19% depending on the charge energy.
  • Four methods are described for analyzing the dynamic behavior of plasma accelerators: the gasdynamic, the snowplow, the free-particle, and the slug model. The latter method is examined in detail, and it is demonstrated that approximate solutions exist which aid in predicting the effect of various parameters on performance. It is concluded that the use of this analytical model in designing the system and the mode of operation can lead to favorable efficiencies in converting electrical tc kinetic energy. (auth)
  • The slug model of a plasma accelerator is formulated and analyzed, incorporating a resistive gradient, R/sub 1/. The assumptions upon which the model is based are discussed. Various efficiency measures describing the system performance are defined, and the advantages of each are stated. It is proved that operating the plasma accelerator at the highest possible discharge repetition rate minimizes the accelerator system weight and maximizes the performance. Solutions valid for small times are derived, both by series expansion techniques and by an iterative technique based on the method of variation of parameters. The advantages of each type of formula aremore » discussed. Both types of formula afford an accurate description of the initial system behavior. The WKBJ method is used to prove that the inductive energy in the system asymptotically drops to zero, despite the monotonically increasing system inductance. Curves displaying the results of a wide-range parametric study made on an analog computer are presented. Multistaging of a plasma accelerator is discussed and is shown to increase the efficiency of energy utilization. (auth)« less