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Title: Tomography of integrated circuit interconnect with an electromigration void

Abstract

An integrated circuit interconnect was subject to accelerated-life test conditions to induce an electromigration void. The silicon substrate was removed, leaving only the interconnect test structure encased in silica. We imaged the sample with 1750 eV photons using the 2-ID-B scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the Advanced Photon Source, a third-generation synchrotron facility. Fourteen views through the sample were obtained over a 170 degree sign range of angles (with a 40 degree sign gap) about a single rotation axis. Two sampled regions were selected for three-dimensional reconstruction: one of the ragged end of a wire depleted by the void, the other of the adjacent interlevel connection (or ''via''). We applied two reconstruction techniques: the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique and a Bayesian reconstruction technique, the generalized Gaussian Markov random field method. The stated uncertainties are total, with one standard deviation, which resolved the sample to 200{+-}70 and 140{+-}30 nm, respectively. The tungsten via is distinguished from the aluminum wire by higher absorption. Within the void, the aluminum is entirely depleted from under the tungsten via. The reconstructed data show the applicability of this technique to three-dimensional imaging of buried defects in submicrometer structures relevant to the microelectronics industry. (c) 2000 Americanmore » Institute of Physics.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [1];  [1];  [5]
  1. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Intel Corporation RA1-329, 5200 Northeast Elam Young Parkway, Hillsboro, Oregon 74124 (United States)
  4. Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)
  5. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States) (and others)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20216204
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: PBD: 1 May 2000; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; VOIDS; INTEGRATED CIRCUITS; CONNECTORS; TOMOGRAPHY; ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; ALUMINIUM; TUNGSTEN; TITANIUM; EXPERIMENTAL DATA

Citation Formats

Levine, Zachary H., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590, Kalukin, Andrew R., Kuhn, Markus, Frigo, Sean P., McNulty, Ian, Retsch, Cornelia C., Wang, Yuxin, Arp, Uwe, Lucatorto, Thomas B., and Ravel, Bruce D. Tomography of integrated circuit interconnect with an electromigration void. United States: N. p., 2000. Web. doi:10.1063/1.373095.
Levine, Zachary H., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590, Kalukin, Andrew R., Kuhn, Markus, Frigo, Sean P., McNulty, Ian, Retsch, Cornelia C., Wang, Yuxin, Arp, Uwe, Lucatorto, Thomas B., & Ravel, Bruce D. Tomography of integrated circuit interconnect with an electromigration void. United States. doi:10.1063/1.373095.
Levine, Zachary H., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590, Kalukin, Andrew R., Kuhn, Markus, Frigo, Sean P., McNulty, Ian, Retsch, Cornelia C., Wang, Yuxin, Arp, Uwe, Lucatorto, Thomas B., and Ravel, Bruce D. Mon . "Tomography of integrated circuit interconnect with an electromigration void". United States. doi:10.1063/1.373095.
@article{osti_20216204,
title = {Tomography of integrated circuit interconnect with an electromigration void},
author = {Levine, Zachary H. and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590 and Kalukin, Andrew R. and Kuhn, Markus and Frigo, Sean P. and McNulty, Ian and Retsch, Cornelia C. and Wang, Yuxin and Arp, Uwe and Lucatorto, Thomas B. and Ravel, Bruce D.},
abstractNote = {An integrated circuit interconnect was subject to accelerated-life test conditions to induce an electromigration void. The silicon substrate was removed, leaving only the interconnect test structure encased in silica. We imaged the sample with 1750 eV photons using the 2-ID-B scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the Advanced Photon Source, a third-generation synchrotron facility. Fourteen views through the sample were obtained over a 170 degree sign range of angles (with a 40 degree sign gap) about a single rotation axis. Two sampled regions were selected for three-dimensional reconstruction: one of the ragged end of a wire depleted by the void, the other of the adjacent interlevel connection (or ''via''). We applied two reconstruction techniques: the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique and a Bayesian reconstruction technique, the generalized Gaussian Markov random field method. The stated uncertainties are total, with one standard deviation, which resolved the sample to 200{+-}70 and 140{+-}30 nm, respectively. The tungsten via is distinguished from the aluminum wire by higher absorption. Within the void, the aluminum is entirely depleted from under the tungsten via. The reconstructed data show the applicability of this technique to three-dimensional imaging of buried defects in submicrometer structures relevant to the microelectronics industry. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.},
doi = {10.1063/1.373095},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
issn = {0021-8979},
number = 9,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = {2000},
month = {5}
}