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Title: Toxicity of organic chemical pollution in groundwater downgradient of a landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to describe the occurrence and distribution of toxicity related to organic chemical contaminants in the leachate plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill (Denmark). A total of 27 groundwater samples were preconcentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using XAD-2 as the resin material. This treatment effectively eliminated sample matrix toxicity caused by inorganic salts and natural organic compounds and produced an aqueous concentrate of the nonvolatile chemical contaminants. The SPE extracts were tested in a battery of standardized short-term aquatic toxicity tests with luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), and crustaceans (Daphnia magna). Additional genotoxicity tests were made using the umuC test (Salmonella typhimurium). Biotests with algae and luminescent bacteria were the most sensitive tests. On the basis of results with these two bioassays, it was concluded that SPE extracts of groundwater collected close to the landfill were toxic. The toxicity decreased with the distance from the landfill. At distances greater than 80 m from the border of the landfill, the groundwater toxicity was not significantly different from the background toxicity. SPE extracts were not toxic to Daphnia, and no genotoxicity was observed in the umuC test. The overall findings indicate that a batterymore » of biotests applied on preconcentrated groundwater samples can be a useful tool for toxicity characterization and hazard ranking of groundwater polluted with complex chemical mixtures, such as landfill leachates.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (DK)
OSTI Identifier:
20080504
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Environmental Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: PBD: 1 May 2000; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-936X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; WATER POLLUTION; GROUND WATER; DENMARK; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; SANITARY LANDFILLS; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT; BIOASSAY

Citation Formats

Baun, A., Jensen, S.D., Bjerg, P.L., Christensen, T.H., and Nyholm, N. Toxicity of organic chemical pollution in groundwater downgradient of a landfill (Grindsted, Denmark). United States: N. p., 2000. Web. doi:10.1021/es9902524.
Baun, A., Jensen, S.D., Bjerg, P.L., Christensen, T.H., & Nyholm, N. Toxicity of organic chemical pollution in groundwater downgradient of a landfill (Grindsted, Denmark). United States. doi:10.1021/es9902524.
Baun, A., Jensen, S.D., Bjerg, P.L., Christensen, T.H., and Nyholm, N. Mon . "Toxicity of organic chemical pollution in groundwater downgradient of a landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)". United States. doi:10.1021/es9902524.
@article{osti_20080504,
title = {Toxicity of organic chemical pollution in groundwater downgradient of a landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)},
author = {Baun, A. and Jensen, S.D. and Bjerg, P.L. and Christensen, T.H. and Nyholm, N.},
abstractNote = {The aim of the present study was to describe the occurrence and distribution of toxicity related to organic chemical contaminants in the leachate plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill (Denmark). A total of 27 groundwater samples were preconcentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using XAD-2 as the resin material. This treatment effectively eliminated sample matrix toxicity caused by inorganic salts and natural organic compounds and produced an aqueous concentrate of the nonvolatile chemical contaminants. The SPE extracts were tested in a battery of standardized short-term aquatic toxicity tests with luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), and crustaceans (Daphnia magna). Additional genotoxicity tests were made using the umuC test (Salmonella typhimurium). Biotests with algae and luminescent bacteria were the most sensitive tests. On the basis of results with these two bioassays, it was concluded that SPE extracts of groundwater collected close to the landfill were toxic. The toxicity decreased with the distance from the landfill. At distances greater than 80 m from the border of the landfill, the groundwater toxicity was not significantly different from the background toxicity. SPE extracts were not toxic to Daphnia, and no genotoxicity was observed in the umuC test. The overall findings indicate that a battery of biotests applied on preconcentrated groundwater samples can be a useful tool for toxicity characterization and hazard ranking of groundwater polluted with complex chemical mixtures, such as landfill leachates.},
doi = {10.1021/es9902524},
journal = {Environmental Science and Technology},
issn = {0013-936X},
number = 9,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {2000},
month = {5}
}