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Title: Screening commercial surfactants suitable for remediating DNAPL source zones by solubilization

Abstract

Surfactants can enhance the removal of nonaqueous-phase-liquids (NAPLs) from porous media by two very different mechanisms: (1) increased solubilization that occurs in the presence of surfactant micelles and (2) mobilization of NAPL ganglia held by capillary forces. Solubilization technologies pose less risk of uncontrolled NAPL migration and are less complex to design. Since dense-NAPLs, like PCE, pose the greatest risk of migration, there is a need for more information on surfactants that are capable of solubilizing DNAPLs and removing them as water continuous, low viscosity, microemulsion without mobilization. Forty-two commercial, water-soluble surfactants were screened for PCE solubilization in batch experiments and one nonionic (Brij 97) and one anionic (SDS) surfactant were further evaluated in column experiments. Of the 42 surfactants that were screened, 12 nonionic surfactants with HLB values between 10.8 and 13.2 solubilized the most PCE. However, as PCE solubilization exceeded {approximately}40,000 mg/L, macroemulsion stability became a problem. Addition of IPA did not affect the amount of PCE solubilized but decreased macroemulsion stability, resulting in more rapid formation of Winsor Type 1 microemulsions. The most efficient surfactants were Brij 97 and Ritoleth 10, both being ethoxylated oleyl alcohol ethers, At 3 wt % IPA and surfactant, these surfactants solubilizedmore » >70,000 mg PCE/L. In column experiments, Brij 97/IPA removed >92% of the residual PCE in 11 pore volumes without mobilizing the PCE. An SDS/pentanol/IPA system removed 98% in {approximately}9.5 pore volumes, but about 30% of the PCE was mobilized. Removal of PCE was rate-limited with Brij 97/IPA, suggesting that flow interruption may be an effective remediation strategy.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (US)
OSTI Identifier:
20080459
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Environmental Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: PBD: 15 May 2000; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-936X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; REMEDIAL ACTION; SOILS; VOLATILE MATTER; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; SURFACTANTS; PERFORMANCE TESTING; SOLUBILITY

Citation Formats

Zhou, M., and Rhue, R.D. Screening commercial surfactants suitable for remediating DNAPL source zones by solubilization. United States: N. p., 2000. Web. doi:10.1021/es9811546.
Zhou, M., & Rhue, R.D. Screening commercial surfactants suitable for remediating DNAPL source zones by solubilization. United States. doi:10.1021/es9811546.
Zhou, M., and Rhue, R.D. Mon . "Screening commercial surfactants suitable for remediating DNAPL source zones by solubilization". United States. doi:10.1021/es9811546.
@article{osti_20080459,
title = {Screening commercial surfactants suitable for remediating DNAPL source zones by solubilization},
author = {Zhou, M. and Rhue, R.D.},
abstractNote = {Surfactants can enhance the removal of nonaqueous-phase-liquids (NAPLs) from porous media by two very different mechanisms: (1) increased solubilization that occurs in the presence of surfactant micelles and (2) mobilization of NAPL ganglia held by capillary forces. Solubilization technologies pose less risk of uncontrolled NAPL migration and are less complex to design. Since dense-NAPLs, like PCE, pose the greatest risk of migration, there is a need for more information on surfactants that are capable of solubilizing DNAPLs and removing them as water continuous, low viscosity, microemulsion without mobilization. Forty-two commercial, water-soluble surfactants were screened for PCE solubilization in batch experiments and one nonionic (Brij 97) and one anionic (SDS) surfactant were further evaluated in column experiments. Of the 42 surfactants that were screened, 12 nonionic surfactants with HLB values between 10.8 and 13.2 solubilized the most PCE. However, as PCE solubilization exceeded {approximately}40,000 mg/L, macroemulsion stability became a problem. Addition of IPA did not affect the amount of PCE solubilized but decreased macroemulsion stability, resulting in more rapid formation of Winsor Type 1 microemulsions. The most efficient surfactants were Brij 97 and Ritoleth 10, both being ethoxylated oleyl alcohol ethers, At 3 wt % IPA and surfactant, these surfactants solubilized >70,000 mg PCE/L. In column experiments, Brij 97/IPA removed >92% of the residual PCE in 11 pore volumes without mobilizing the PCE. An SDS/pentanol/IPA system removed 98% in {approximately}9.5 pore volumes, but about 30% of the PCE was mobilized. Removal of PCE was rate-limited with Brij 97/IPA, suggesting that flow interruption may be an effective remediation strategy.},
doi = {10.1021/es9811546},
journal = {Environmental Science and Technology},
issn = {0013-936X},
number = 10,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {2000},
month = {5}
}