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Title: Methylsulfone polychlorinated biphenyl and 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene metabolites in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River estuary and western Hudson Bay, Canada

Abstract

Knowledge is limited regarding methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2})-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and especially MeSo{sub 2}-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), metabolites in cetacean species. The authors hypothesized that the ability of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) to biotransform PCB and DDE compounds, and to form and degrade their MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE metabolites, is related to the capacity for xenobiotic metabolism. Adipose biopsies were collected from male and female beluga whale from distinct populations in the St. Lawrence River estuary (STL) and western Hudson Bay (WHB), Canada, which are contrasted by the exposure to different levels of cytochrome P450 enzyme-inducing, chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants. The PCBs, DDTs, DDEs, 28 MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 14 meta-para chlorine-unsubstituted PCBs, and four MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 4,4{prime}- and 2,4{prime}-DDE were determined. The mean concentrations of total ({Sigma}-) MeSO{sub 2}-PCB in male STL beluga (230 ng/g), and ratios of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB (0.05) and {Sigma}-precursor-PCB (0.17) were approximately twofold higher, whereas the {Sigma}-precursor-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB ratio was approximately twofold lower, than in male WHB beluga. Both populations had a low formation capacity for MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs with {le} six chlorines (<4% of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs). The congener patterns were dominated by trichloro- and tetrachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs, and tetrachloro- and pentachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in WHB andmore » STL animals, respectively. In addition to 2- and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, two unknown MeSO{sub 2}-2,4{prime}-DDEs were detected. The mean 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE concentration in STL beluga (1.2 ng/g) was much greater than in WHB animals. The concentrations of 4,4{prime}-DDE, and not 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, increased with age in male STL animals. The authors demonstrated that sulfone formation and clearance is related to metabolic capacity, and thus PCB, DDE, and MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE toxicokinetics differ for STL and WHB beluga. In the past, the capacity of odontocetes for PCB and DDE biotransformation leading to persistent sulfone formation and clearance is related to metabolic capacity, and thus PCB, DDE, and MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE toxicokinetics differ for STL and WHB beluga. In the past, the capacity of odontocetes for PCB and DDE biotransformation leading to persistent sulfone metabolites has been underestimated. More information is needed for other cetacean species and marine mammals. The results of this study indicate that MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs and -DDEs need to be included in the toxicologic risk assessment of PCB and DDT exposure in odontocetes, and perhaps for cetaceans in general.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (CA)
OSTI Identifier:
20067674
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 20067674
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 19; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: PBD: May 2000; Journal ID: ISSN 0730-7268
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; WATER POLLUTION; BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS; POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS; ORGANIC CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; CETACEANS; METABOLITES; ST LAWRENCE RIVER; ESTUARIES; CANADA

Citation Formats

Letcher, R.J., Norstrom, R.J., Muir, D.C.G., Sandau, C.D., Koczanski, K., Michaud, R., De Guise, S., and Beland, P. Methylsulfone polychlorinated biphenyl and 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene metabolites in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River estuary and western Hudson Bay, Canada. United States: N. p., 2000. Web. doi:10.1897/1551-5028(2000)019<1378:MPBABC>2.3.CO;2.
Letcher, R.J., Norstrom, R.J., Muir, D.C.G., Sandau, C.D., Koczanski, K., Michaud, R., De Guise, S., & Beland, P. Methylsulfone polychlorinated biphenyl and 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene metabolites in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River estuary and western Hudson Bay, Canada. United States. doi:10.1897/1551-5028(2000)019<1378:MPBABC>2.3.CO;2.
Letcher, R.J., Norstrom, R.J., Muir, D.C.G., Sandau, C.D., Koczanski, K., Michaud, R., De Guise, S., and Beland, P. Mon . "Methylsulfone polychlorinated biphenyl and 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene metabolites in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River estuary and western Hudson Bay, Canada". United States. doi:10.1897/1551-5028(2000)019<1378:MPBABC>2.3.CO;2.
@article{osti_20067674,
title = {Methylsulfone polychlorinated biphenyl and 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene metabolites in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River estuary and western Hudson Bay, Canada},
author = {Letcher, R.J. and Norstrom, R.J. and Muir, D.C.G. and Sandau, C.D. and Koczanski, K. and Michaud, R. and De Guise, S. and Beland, P.},
abstractNote = {Knowledge is limited regarding methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2})-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and especially MeSo{sub 2}-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), metabolites in cetacean species. The authors hypothesized that the ability of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) to biotransform PCB and DDE compounds, and to form and degrade their MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE metabolites, is related to the capacity for xenobiotic metabolism. Adipose biopsies were collected from male and female beluga whale from distinct populations in the St. Lawrence River estuary (STL) and western Hudson Bay (WHB), Canada, which are contrasted by the exposure to different levels of cytochrome P450 enzyme-inducing, chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants. The PCBs, DDTs, DDEs, 28 MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 14 meta-para chlorine-unsubstituted PCBs, and four MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 4,4{prime}- and 2,4{prime}-DDE were determined. The mean concentrations of total ({Sigma}-) MeSO{sub 2}-PCB in male STL beluga (230 ng/g), and ratios of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB (0.05) and {Sigma}-precursor-PCB (0.17) were approximately twofold higher, whereas the {Sigma}-precursor-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB ratio was approximately twofold lower, than in male WHB beluga. Both populations had a low formation capacity for MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs with {le} six chlorines (<4% of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs). The congener patterns were dominated by trichloro- and tetrachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs, and tetrachloro- and pentachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in WHB and STL animals, respectively. In addition to 2- and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, two unknown MeSO{sub 2}-2,4{prime}-DDEs were detected. The mean 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE concentration in STL beluga (1.2 ng/g) was much greater than in WHB animals. The concentrations of 4,4{prime}-DDE, and not 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, increased with age in male STL animals. The authors demonstrated that sulfone formation and clearance is related to metabolic capacity, and thus PCB, DDE, and MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE toxicokinetics differ for STL and WHB beluga. In the past, the capacity of odontocetes for PCB and DDE biotransformation leading to persistent sulfone formation and clearance is related to metabolic capacity, and thus PCB, DDE, and MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE toxicokinetics differ for STL and WHB beluga. In the past, the capacity of odontocetes for PCB and DDE biotransformation leading to persistent sulfone metabolites has been underestimated. More information is needed for other cetacean species and marine mammals. The results of this study indicate that MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs and -DDEs need to be included in the toxicologic risk assessment of PCB and DDT exposure in odontocetes, and perhaps for cetaceans in general.},
doi = {10.1897/1551-5028(2000)019<1378:MPBABC>2.3.CO;2},
journal = {Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry},
issn = {0730-7268},
number = 5,
volume = 19,
place = {United States},
year = {2000},
month = {5}
}