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Title: Relative importance of calcium and magnesium in hardness-based modification of copper toxicity

Abstract

Because of the relationship between water hardness and the toxicity of many metals, total hardness is used as a model parameter to calculate ambient water quality criteria for copper and other metals. However, the relative contribution of the Ca and Mg components of total hardness as modifiers of metals toxicity is not considered in the water quality criteria. Acute Cu toxicity was measured in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) swim-up fry in laboratory waters that were formulated to have similar total hardness and alkalinity but different Ca and Mg concentrations. Experiments were performed at nominal total hardness values of 40 and 90 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}). In four paired toxicity tests, acute Cu toxicity was significantly lower, i.e., 96-h LC50s were higher, in laboratory waters containing proportionately more Ca (Ca:Mg molar ratios of 1.5--5.2) than in waters containing less Ca (Ca:Mg molar ratios of 0.2--0.8). the relative increase in the 96-h Cu LC50 at higher Ca concentrations, but similar total hardness concentrations, was between 29 and 86% when the low Ca treatment was similar to American Society for Testing and Materials laboratory water. Failure to account for differences in Ca when matching or adjusting for totalmore » hardness thus exerts an important influence on the prediction of metal toxicity. These differences must be addressed in water-effect ratio testing in which paired tests with laboratory and site waters are conducted.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Stratus Consulting Inc., Boulder, CO (US)
OSTI Identifier:
20062547
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 20062547
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 19; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: PBD: Jun 2000; Journal ID: ISSN 0730-7268
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; WATER POLLUTION; COPPER; TOXICITY; CALCIUM; BIOGEOCHEMISTRY; MAGNESIUM; WATER CHEMISTRY; TROUT; SALMON; BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS

Citation Formats

Welsh, P.G., Lipton, J., Chapman, G.A., and Podrabsky, T.L. Relative importance of calcium and magnesium in hardness-based modification of copper toxicity. United States: N. p., 2000. Web. doi:10.1897/1551-5028(2000)019<1624:RIOCAM>2.3.CO;2.
Welsh, P.G., Lipton, J., Chapman, G.A., & Podrabsky, T.L. Relative importance of calcium and magnesium in hardness-based modification of copper toxicity. United States. doi:10.1897/1551-5028(2000)019<1624:RIOCAM>2.3.CO;2.
Welsh, P.G., Lipton, J., Chapman, G.A., and Podrabsky, T.L. Thu . "Relative importance of calcium and magnesium in hardness-based modification of copper toxicity". United States. doi:10.1897/1551-5028(2000)019<1624:RIOCAM>2.3.CO;2.
@article{osti_20062547,
title = {Relative importance of calcium and magnesium in hardness-based modification of copper toxicity},
author = {Welsh, P.G. and Lipton, J. and Chapman, G.A. and Podrabsky, T.L.},
abstractNote = {Because of the relationship between water hardness and the toxicity of many metals, total hardness is used as a model parameter to calculate ambient water quality criteria for copper and other metals. However, the relative contribution of the Ca and Mg components of total hardness as modifiers of metals toxicity is not considered in the water quality criteria. Acute Cu toxicity was measured in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) swim-up fry in laboratory waters that were formulated to have similar total hardness and alkalinity but different Ca and Mg concentrations. Experiments were performed at nominal total hardness values of 40 and 90 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}). In four paired toxicity tests, acute Cu toxicity was significantly lower, i.e., 96-h LC50s were higher, in laboratory waters containing proportionately more Ca (Ca:Mg molar ratios of 1.5--5.2) than in waters containing less Ca (Ca:Mg molar ratios of 0.2--0.8). the relative increase in the 96-h Cu LC50 at higher Ca concentrations, but similar total hardness concentrations, was between 29 and 86% when the low Ca treatment was similar to American Society for Testing and Materials laboratory water. Failure to account for differences in Ca when matching or adjusting for total hardness thus exerts an important influence on the prediction of metal toxicity. These differences must be addressed in water-effect ratio testing in which paired tests with laboratory and site waters are conducted.},
doi = {10.1897/1551-5028(2000)019<1624:RIOCAM>2.3.CO;2},
journal = {Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry},
issn = {0730-7268},
number = 6,
volume = 19,
place = {United States},
year = {2000},
month = {6}
}