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Title: Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soil in the presence of the earthworm Eisenia andrei

Abstract

The ability of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to metabolize 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was studied in experiments with TNT-spiked soils, dermal contact tests, and with an in vitro assay. Lethality of TNT in a forest sandy soil was first determined. Then TNT at lethal and sublethal concentrations was applied to the same soil and was monitored along with its metabolites in extracts of soil and earthworm tissue for up to 14 d post application. High performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet analyses indicated that TNT was transformed in the presence of E. andrei by a reductive pathway to 2-amino-3,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2.4-DANT), and traces of 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6-DANT) in earthworm tissues. This transformation could be explained by either a metabolic mechanism within the earthworm or by the enhancement of an earthworm-associated microbial activity or both. The TNT concentrations decreased from the spiked soils. However, the monoamino-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT and 4-ADNT) concentrations increased with exposure duration and were dependent on the initial TNT soil concentrations. This was also observed to a lesser extent in the TNT-spiked soils with no earthworms present. The biotransformation of TNT into 2-ADNT, 4-ADNT, and 2,4-DANT and the presence of these metabolites in E. andrei after dermal contact on TNT-spiked filtermore » paper showed that dermal uptake can be a significant exposure route for TNT. In vitro experiments showed that earthworm homogenate could metabolize TNT and form 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT at room temperature and at 37 C. This effect was inhibited by heat inactivation prior to incubation or by incubation at 4 C, suggesting that the biotransformation of TNT in the presence of E. andrei may be enzymatic in nature.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Biotechnology Research Inst., Montreal, Quebec (CA)
OSTI Identifier:
20062533
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 20062533
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 19; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: PBD: Jun 2000; Journal ID: ISSN 0730-7268
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; TNT; ANNELIDS; BIODEGRADATION; REMEDIAL ACTION; MONITORING; ENZYME ACTIVITY

Citation Formats

Renoux, A.Y., Sarrazin, M., Hawari, J., and Sunahara, G.I. Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soil in the presence of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. United States: N. p., 2000. Web. doi:10.1897/1551-5028(2000)019<1473:TOTISI>2.3.CO;2.
Renoux, A.Y., Sarrazin, M., Hawari, J., & Sunahara, G.I. Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soil in the presence of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. United States. doi:10.1897/1551-5028(2000)019<1473:TOTISI>2.3.CO;2.
Renoux, A.Y., Sarrazin, M., Hawari, J., and Sunahara, G.I. Thu . "Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soil in the presence of the earthworm Eisenia andrei". United States. doi:10.1897/1551-5028(2000)019<1473:TOTISI>2.3.CO;2.
@article{osti_20062533,
title = {Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soil in the presence of the earthworm Eisenia andrei},
author = {Renoux, A.Y. and Sarrazin, M. and Hawari, J. and Sunahara, G.I.},
abstractNote = {The ability of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to metabolize 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was studied in experiments with TNT-spiked soils, dermal contact tests, and with an in vitro assay. Lethality of TNT in a forest sandy soil was first determined. Then TNT at lethal and sublethal concentrations was applied to the same soil and was monitored along with its metabolites in extracts of soil and earthworm tissue for up to 14 d post application. High performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet analyses indicated that TNT was transformed in the presence of E. andrei by a reductive pathway to 2-amino-3,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2.4-DANT), and traces of 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6-DANT) in earthworm tissues. This transformation could be explained by either a metabolic mechanism within the earthworm or by the enhancement of an earthworm-associated microbial activity or both. The TNT concentrations decreased from the spiked soils. However, the monoamino-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT and 4-ADNT) concentrations increased with exposure duration and were dependent on the initial TNT soil concentrations. This was also observed to a lesser extent in the TNT-spiked soils with no earthworms present. The biotransformation of TNT into 2-ADNT, 4-ADNT, and 2,4-DANT and the presence of these metabolites in E. andrei after dermal contact on TNT-spiked filter paper showed that dermal uptake can be a significant exposure route for TNT. In vitro experiments showed that earthworm homogenate could metabolize TNT and form 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT at room temperature and at 37 C. This effect was inhibited by heat inactivation prior to incubation or by incubation at 4 C, suggesting that the biotransformation of TNT in the presence of E. andrei may be enzymatic in nature.},
doi = {10.1897/1551-5028(2000)019<1473:TOTISI>2.3.CO;2},
journal = {Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry},
issn = {0730-7268},
number = 6,
volume = 19,
place = {United States},
year = {2000},
month = {6}
}