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Title: Studies on phenolation of coals

Abstract

Phenols, cresols, di- and trihydric phenols, {beta}-naphthol, chloro- and nitrophenols, aromatic ethers, and so forth, can be used to phenolate coals and lignites in the presence of acid catalysts. This reaction can also be catalyzed by light. The use of various phenols, catalysts, and promoters has been studied for the phenolation of various coals and lignites. Various reaction conditions have been optimized. Several Lewis acids, including inexpensive compounds, have been reported to act as catalysts for this reaction. Various bituminous coals and Neyveli lignite have been used for this reaction. Phenols recovered as hazardous wastes may be used for this reaction. Phenolation of low-grade coals may increase their volatile matter content and calorific values. Thus, the phenolation process may serve twin purposes, that is, it may help in the utilization of phenols from hazardous industrial wastes and at the same time the low-grade coals may be upgraded. However, further research work on the application of this reaction may be required before considering its use in waste treatment or utilization. Organorefining of phenolated coals may afford cleaner coal in high yields.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (IN)
OSTI Identifier:
20020925
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 20020925
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Energy Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: PBD: May 2000; Journal ID: ISSN 0090-8312
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; BITUMINOUS COAL; LIGNITE; PHENOLS; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION; COAL LIQUEFACTION; PHENOLATES

Citation Formats

Sharma, D.K., and Mishra, S. Studies on phenolation of coals. United States: N. p., 2000. Web.
Sharma, D.K., & Mishra, S. Studies on phenolation of coals. United States.
Sharma, D.K., and Mishra, S. Mon . "Studies on phenolation of coals". United States.
@article{osti_20020925,
title = {Studies on phenolation of coals},
author = {Sharma, D.K. and Mishra, S.},
abstractNote = {Phenols, cresols, di- and trihydric phenols, {beta}-naphthol, chloro- and nitrophenols, aromatic ethers, and so forth, can be used to phenolate coals and lignites in the presence of acid catalysts. This reaction can also be catalyzed by light. The use of various phenols, catalysts, and promoters has been studied for the phenolation of various coals and lignites. Various reaction conditions have been optimized. Several Lewis acids, including inexpensive compounds, have been reported to act as catalysts for this reaction. Various bituminous coals and Neyveli lignite have been used for this reaction. Phenols recovered as hazardous wastes may be used for this reaction. Phenolation of low-grade coals may increase their volatile matter content and calorific values. Thus, the phenolation process may serve twin purposes, that is, it may help in the utilization of phenols from hazardous industrial wastes and at the same time the low-grade coals may be upgraded. However, further research work on the application of this reaction may be required before considering its use in waste treatment or utilization. Organorefining of phenolated coals may afford cleaner coal in high yields.},
doi = {},
journal = {Energy Sources},
issn = {0090-8312},
number = 4,
volume = 22,
place = {United States},
year = {2000},
month = {5}
}