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Title: Recommended default methodology for analysis of airborne exposures to mixtures of chemicals in emergencies

Abstract

Emergency planning and hazard assessment of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities require consideration of potential exposures to mixtures of chemicals released to the atmosphere. Exposure to chemical mixtures may lead to additive, synergistic, or antagonistic health effects. In the past, the consequences of exposure to each chemical have been analyzed separately. This approach may not adequately protect the health of persons exposed to mixtures. This article presents default recommendations for use in emergency management and safety analysis within the DOE complex where potential exists for releases of mixtures of chemicals. These recommendations were developed by the DOE Subcommittee on Consequence Assessment and Protective Actions (SCAPA). It is recommended that hazard indices (e.g., HI{sub i} = C{sub i}/Limit{sub i}, where C{sub i} is the concentration of chemical ``i'') be calculated for each chemical, and unless sufficient toxicological knowledge is available to indicate otherwise, that they be summed, that is, {summation}{sub i=1}{sup n}HI{sub i} = HI{sub 1} + HI{sub 2} + {hor_ellipsis} + HI{sub n}. A sum of 1.0 or less means the limits have not been exceeded. To facilitate application of these recommendations for analysis of exposure to specific mixtures, chemicals are classified according to their toxic consequences. This is donemore » using health code numbers describing toxic effects by target organ for each chemical. This methodology has been applied to several potential releases of chemicals to compare the resulting hazard indices of a chemical mixture with those obtained when each chemical is treated independently. The methodology used and results obtained from analysis of one mixture are presented in this article. This article also demonstrates how health code numbers can be used to sum hazard indices only for those chemicals that have the same toxic sequence.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Aiken, SC (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy
OSTI Identifier:
20020659
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 20020659
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: PBD: Sep 1999; Journal ID: ISSN 1047-322X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; AIR POLLUTION; EMERGENCY PLANS; US DOE; HAZARDOUS MATERIALS; HEALTH HAZARDS; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; MIXTURES; RECOMMENDATIONS; SAFETY; ACCIDENTS

Citation Formats

Craig, D.K., Baskett, R.L., Davis, J.S., Dukes, L., Hansen, D.J., Petrocchi, A.J., Powell, T.J., Sutherland, P.J., and Tuccinardi, T.E. Jr. Recommended default methodology for analysis of airborne exposures to mixtures of chemicals in emergencies. United States: N. p., 1999. Web. doi:10.1080/104732299302413.
Craig, D.K., Baskett, R.L., Davis, J.S., Dukes, L., Hansen, D.J., Petrocchi, A.J., Powell, T.J., Sutherland, P.J., & Tuccinardi, T.E. Jr. Recommended default methodology for analysis of airborne exposures to mixtures of chemicals in emergencies. United States. doi:10.1080/104732299302413.
Craig, D.K., Baskett, R.L., Davis, J.S., Dukes, L., Hansen, D.J., Petrocchi, A.J., Powell, T.J., Sutherland, P.J., and Tuccinardi, T.E. Jr. Wed . "Recommended default methodology for analysis of airborne exposures to mixtures of chemicals in emergencies". United States. doi:10.1080/104732299302413.
@article{osti_20020659,
title = {Recommended default methodology for analysis of airborne exposures to mixtures of chemicals in emergencies},
author = {Craig, D.K. and Baskett, R.L. and Davis, J.S. and Dukes, L. and Hansen, D.J. and Petrocchi, A.J. and Powell, T.J. and Sutherland, P.J. and Tuccinardi, T.E. Jr.},
abstractNote = {Emergency planning and hazard assessment of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities require consideration of potential exposures to mixtures of chemicals released to the atmosphere. Exposure to chemical mixtures may lead to additive, synergistic, or antagonistic health effects. In the past, the consequences of exposure to each chemical have been analyzed separately. This approach may not adequately protect the health of persons exposed to mixtures. This article presents default recommendations for use in emergency management and safety analysis within the DOE complex where potential exists for releases of mixtures of chemicals. These recommendations were developed by the DOE Subcommittee on Consequence Assessment and Protective Actions (SCAPA). It is recommended that hazard indices (e.g., HI{sub i} = C{sub i}/Limit{sub i}, where C{sub i} is the concentration of chemical ``i'') be calculated for each chemical, and unless sufficient toxicological knowledge is available to indicate otherwise, that they be summed, that is, {summation}{sub i=1}{sup n}HI{sub i} = HI{sub 1} + HI{sub 2} + {hor_ellipsis} + HI{sub n}. A sum of 1.0 or less means the limits have not been exceeded. To facilitate application of these recommendations for analysis of exposure to specific mixtures, chemicals are classified according to their toxic consequences. This is done using health code numbers describing toxic effects by target organ for each chemical. This methodology has been applied to several potential releases of chemicals to compare the resulting hazard indices of a chemical mixture with those obtained when each chemical is treated independently. The methodology used and results obtained from analysis of one mixture are presented in this article. This article also demonstrates how health code numbers can be used to sum hazard indices only for those chemicals that have the same toxic sequence.},
doi = {10.1080/104732299302413},
journal = {Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene},
issn = {1047-322X},
number = 9,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {1999},
month = {9}
}