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Title: Assessment of potential radiation exposures by uncontrolled recycle or reuse of radioactive scrap metals

Abstract

With current waste monitoring technology it is reasonable to assume that much of the material designated as low-level waste, generated within nuclear facilities, is in fact uncontaminated. A criterion for uncontrolled disposal of low-level radioactive contaminated waste is that the radiation exposure of the public and of each individual caused by this disposal is so low that radiation protection measures need not be taken. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) suggests an annual effective dose of 10 {micro}Sv as a limit for the individual radiation dose and derived the initial control levels of residual radioactivity based on the Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1990, new recommendations on radiation protection standards were developed by ICRP to take into account new biological information related to the detriment associated with radiation exposure. Adoption of these recommendations necessitated a revision of the Commission's secondary limits contained in Publication 30. This study summarizes the potential radiation exposure from valuable scrap metal considered for uncontrolled recycle by new ICRP recommendations. Potential exposure pathways to people were analyzed and concentrations leading to an individual dose of 10 {micro}Sv/year were calculated for 14 key radionuclides. These potential radiation doses are compared withmore » the results of previous study.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (KR)
OSTI Identifier:
20018992
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal Volume: 19; Journal Issue: 7-8; Other Information: PBD: 1999
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; SCRAP METALS; RADIOACTIVE WASTES; RECYCLING; RADIATION DOSES; LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES; ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE PATHWAY; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION

Citation Formats

Lee, S.Y., and Lee, K.J. Assessment of potential radiation exposures by uncontrolled recycle or reuse of radioactive scrap metals. United States: N. p., 1999. Web. doi:10.1016/S0956-053X(99)00240-8.
Lee, S.Y., & Lee, K.J. Assessment of potential radiation exposures by uncontrolled recycle or reuse of radioactive scrap metals. United States. doi:10.1016/S0956-053X(99)00240-8.
Lee, S.Y., and Lee, K.J. 1999. "Assessment of potential radiation exposures by uncontrolled recycle or reuse of radioactive scrap metals". United States. doi:10.1016/S0956-053X(99)00240-8.
@article{osti_20018992,
title = {Assessment of potential radiation exposures by uncontrolled recycle or reuse of radioactive scrap metals},
author = {Lee, S.Y. and Lee, K.J.},
abstractNote = {With current waste monitoring technology it is reasonable to assume that much of the material designated as low-level waste, generated within nuclear facilities, is in fact uncontaminated. A criterion for uncontrolled disposal of low-level radioactive contaminated waste is that the radiation exposure of the public and of each individual caused by this disposal is so low that radiation protection measures need not be taken. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) suggests an annual effective dose of 10 {micro}Sv as a limit for the individual radiation dose and derived the initial control levels of residual radioactivity based on the Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1990, new recommendations on radiation protection standards were developed by ICRP to take into account new biological information related to the detriment associated with radiation exposure. Adoption of these recommendations necessitated a revision of the Commission's secondary limits contained in Publication 30. This study summarizes the potential radiation exposure from valuable scrap metal considered for uncontrolled recycle by new ICRP recommendations. Potential exposure pathways to people were analyzed and concentrations leading to an individual dose of 10 {micro}Sv/year were calculated for 14 key radionuclides. These potential radiation doses are compared with the results of previous study.},
doi = {10.1016/S0956-053X(99)00240-8},
journal = {Waste Management},
number = 7-8,
volume = 19,
place = {United States},
year = 1999,
month = 7
}
  • RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. Itmore » contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.« less
  • From October 22-24, 1996 the University of Tennessee`s Energy, Environment and Resources Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Center for Risk Management cosponsored Beneficial Reuse `96: The Fourth Annual Conference on the Recycle and Reuse of Radioactive Materials. Along with the traditional focus on radioactive scrap metals, this year`s conference included a wide range of topics pertaining to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and contaminated concrete reuse applications. As with previous Beneficial Reuse conferences, the primary goal of this year`s conference was to bring together stakeholder representatives for presentations, panel sessions and workshops on significant waste minimization issues surroundingmore » the recycle and reuse of contaminated metals and other materials. A wide range of industry, government and public stakeholder groups participated in this year`s conference. An international presence from Canada, Germany and Korea helped to make Beneficial Reuse `96 a well-rounded affair. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.« less
  • The decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities is expected to generate large amounts of slightly radioactive scrap metal (RSM). It is likely that some of these materials will be suitable for recycling and reuse. The amount of scrap steel from DOE facilities, for instance, is estimated to be more than one million tons (Hertzler 1993). However, under current practice and without the establishment of acceptable recycling standards, the RSM would be disposed of primarily as radioactive low-level waste (LLW). In the United States, no specific standards have been developed for the unrestricted release of bulk contaminated materials. Although standards formore » unrestricted release of radioactive surface contamination (NRC 1974) have existed for about 20 years, the release of materials is not commonly practiced because of the lack of risk-based justifications. Recent guidance from international bodies (IAEA 1988) has established a basis for deriving risk-based release limits for radioactive materials. It is important, therefore, to evaluate the feasibility of recycling and associated issues necessary for the establishment of risk-based release limits for the radioactive metals.« less
  • A process to implement the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) policy for authorized release of radioactive materials from DOE facilities is provided in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material, published by DOE in 1997 and distributed to DOE field offices for interim use and implementation. The authorized release of such property is intended to permit its beneficial use across the entire DOE complex. A computerized management tool--P2Pro(RSM)--has been developed to aid in carrying out the release process for radioactive metals. It contains protocols for the authorized release process and relevantmore » information to facilitate the evaluation of scrap metals for reuse and recycle. The P2Pro(RSM) protocols provide DOE and its contractors with an effective, user-friendly tool for managing authorized release activities P2Pro(RSM) is designed to be used in the Windows{sup {trademark}} environment. The protocols incorporate a relational database coupled with a graphic-user interface to guide the user through the appropriate steps so authorized release limits can be developed. With the information provided in the database, an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) optimization process can be easily set up and run for up to 10 alternatives for disposition of radioactive scrap metals. The results of the ALARA optimization process can be printed in a series of reports and submitted as part of the application for the authorized release of the radioactive scrap metals.« less