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Title: Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

Abstract

The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (US)
OSTI Identifier:
20014591
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Science and Technology; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: PBD: 15 Jan 2000
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; 02 PETROLEUM; 03 NATURAL GAS; 10 SYNTHETIC FUELS; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; AUTOMOBILES; EMISSION; GREENHOUSE GASES; FUEL SUBSTITUTION; GASOLINE; DIESEL FUELS; NATURAL GAS; ALCOHOL FUELS

Citation Formats

MaClean, H.L., and Lave, L.B. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs. United States: N. p., 2000. Web. doi:10.1021/es9905290.
MaClean, H.L., & Lave, L.B. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs. United States. doi:10.1021/es9905290.
MaClean, H.L., and Lave, L.B. Sat . "Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs". United States. doi:10.1021/es9905290.
@article{osti_20014591,
title = {Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs},
author = {MaClean, H.L. and Lave, L.B.},
abstractNote = {The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency.},
doi = {10.1021/es9905290},
journal = {Environmental Science and Technology},
number = 2,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2000},
month = {Sat Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2000}
}