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Title: Wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from dairy manure storage

Abstract

Analysis of the use of a wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from liquid manure was conducted in both a laboratory and a pilot system. Two straw covers with different thicknesses (5 cm and 10 cm) were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing odorous gas emissions. The rates of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from the treatments were monitored; concentrations of ammonia, dissolved sulfide, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH of the liquid manure were measured. Additionally, the overall mass transfer coefficients of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were calculated for the conditions of the experiment. The results demonstrated that both the 5-cm and 10-cm straw covers were effective in reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from manure storage. In the laboratory tests, when a crust formed on the manure surface within three to four weeks after the straw application, ammonia emissions were reduced by up to 95%. A similar trend was observed in the pilot experiments in the field. Hydrogen sulfide emissions were suppressed by 95% with the wheat straw cover. The mass transfer coefficients of hydrogen sulfide with the straw covers were significantly lower than those of the control, which indicated the effectiveness of amore » straw cover as a physical barrier for reducing hydrogen sulfide emissions. Reduced pH and decreased ammonia that biological reactions might also be a factor contributing to the emission reductions.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US)
OSTI Identifier:
20013709
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Transactions of the ASAE
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: PBD: Jul-Aug 1999; Journal ID: ISSN 0001-2351
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; MANURES; AMMONIA; HYDROGEN SULFIDES; AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT; STRAW

Citation Formats

Xue, S K, and Hermanson, R E. Wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from dairy manure storage. United States: N. p., 1999. Web. doi:10.13031/2013.13257.
Xue, S K, & Hermanson, R E. Wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from dairy manure storage. United States. doi:10.13031/2013.13257.
Xue, S K, and Hermanson, R E. Sun . "Wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from dairy manure storage". United States. doi:10.13031/2013.13257.
@article{osti_20013709,
title = {Wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from dairy manure storage},
author = {Xue, S K and Hermanson, R E},
abstractNote = {Analysis of the use of a wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from liquid manure was conducted in both a laboratory and a pilot system. Two straw covers with different thicknesses (5 cm and 10 cm) were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing odorous gas emissions. The rates of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from the treatments were monitored; concentrations of ammonia, dissolved sulfide, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH of the liquid manure were measured. Additionally, the overall mass transfer coefficients of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were calculated for the conditions of the experiment. The results demonstrated that both the 5-cm and 10-cm straw covers were effective in reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from manure storage. In the laboratory tests, when a crust formed on the manure surface within three to four weeks after the straw application, ammonia emissions were reduced by up to 95%. A similar trend was observed in the pilot experiments in the field. Hydrogen sulfide emissions were suppressed by 95% with the wheat straw cover. The mass transfer coefficients of hydrogen sulfide with the straw covers were significantly lower than those of the control, which indicated the effectiveness of a straw cover as a physical barrier for reducing hydrogen sulfide emissions. Reduced pH and decreased ammonia that biological reactions might also be a factor contributing to the emission reductions.},
doi = {10.13031/2013.13257},
journal = {Transactions of the ASAE},
issn = {0001-2351},
number = 4,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = {1999},
month = {8}
}