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Title: Single-phase microemulsification of a complex light-nonaqueous-phase-liquid: Laboratory evaluation of several mixtures of surfactant/alcohol solutions

Abstract

A recent advance in conventional pump-and-treat technology for aquifer remediation involves the use of surfactant-alcohol mixtures that will form a clear, transparent, thermodynamically stable oil-in-water microemulsion on contact with a residual non-aqueous-phase-liquid (NAPL). An initial screening of 86 commercial-grade surfactants for aqueous solubility resulted in selection of 58 that were further tested in batch experiments to evaluate the capacity to solubilize a complex NAPL waste collected from a Superfund site (Operable Unit OU-1) at Hill AFB, UT. The selected group of 58 surfactants represented six classes of anionic, nine classes of nonionic, and one class of amphoteric surfactants. Batch studies on NAPL solubilization identified a number of surfactants suitable for use in the field demonstration phase of the project; a further criterion in surfactant selection was that the flushing solution had a viscosity <2 cp. The best surfactants among this group had HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) values between 12 and 13, and solubilized 10 to 20 g L{sup {minus}1} of the OU-1 NAPL when the surfactant concentration was 3%. Column tests using NAPL-coated glass beads showed that the more efficient surfactants could remove >90% of the NAPL after flushing with <10 pore volumes. Brij 97, an ethoxylated alcohol ether surfactant, showedmore » a high capacity for solubilizing the OU-1 NAPL. In a column test using contaminated Hill AFB aquifer material, flushing with a mixture of 3% Brij 97 and 2.5% n-pentanol removed essentially all of the mass of nine target analytes in the NAPL after flushing with <10 pore volumes without mobilizing the NAPL or destabilizing aquifer colloids.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (US)
OSTI Identifier:
20012696
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Environmental Quality
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 28; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: PBD: Jul-Aug 1999; Journal ID: ISSN 0047-2425
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; REMEDIAL ACTION; AQUIFERS; SURFACTANTS; VOLATILE MATTER; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PERFORMANCE TESTING; IN-SITU PROCESSING

Citation Formats

Rhue, R D, Rao, P S.C., and Annable, M D. Single-phase microemulsification of a complex light-nonaqueous-phase-liquid: Laboratory evaluation of several mixtures of surfactant/alcohol solutions. United States: N. p., 1999. Web. doi:10.2134/jeq1999.00472425002800040012x.
Rhue, R D, Rao, P S.C., & Annable, M D. Single-phase microemulsification of a complex light-nonaqueous-phase-liquid: Laboratory evaluation of several mixtures of surfactant/alcohol solutions. United States. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1999.00472425002800040012x
Rhue, R D, Rao, P S.C., and Annable, M D. 1999. "Single-phase microemulsification of a complex light-nonaqueous-phase-liquid: Laboratory evaluation of several mixtures of surfactant/alcohol solutions". United States. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1999.00472425002800040012x.
@article{osti_20012696,
title = {Single-phase microemulsification of a complex light-nonaqueous-phase-liquid: Laboratory evaluation of several mixtures of surfactant/alcohol solutions},
author = {Rhue, R D and Rao, P S.C. and Annable, M D},
abstractNote = {A recent advance in conventional pump-and-treat technology for aquifer remediation involves the use of surfactant-alcohol mixtures that will form a clear, transparent, thermodynamically stable oil-in-water microemulsion on contact with a residual non-aqueous-phase-liquid (NAPL). An initial screening of 86 commercial-grade surfactants for aqueous solubility resulted in selection of 58 that were further tested in batch experiments to evaluate the capacity to solubilize a complex NAPL waste collected from a Superfund site (Operable Unit OU-1) at Hill AFB, UT. The selected group of 58 surfactants represented six classes of anionic, nine classes of nonionic, and one class of amphoteric surfactants. Batch studies on NAPL solubilization identified a number of surfactants suitable for use in the field demonstration phase of the project; a further criterion in surfactant selection was that the flushing solution had a viscosity <2 cp. The best surfactants among this group had HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) values between 12 and 13, and solubilized 10 to 20 g L{sup {minus}1} of the OU-1 NAPL when the surfactant concentration was 3%. Column tests using NAPL-coated glass beads showed that the more efficient surfactants could remove >90% of the NAPL after flushing with <10 pore volumes. Brij 97, an ethoxylated alcohol ether surfactant, showed a high capacity for solubilizing the OU-1 NAPL. In a column test using contaminated Hill AFB aquifer material, flushing with a mixture of 3% Brij 97 and 2.5% n-pentanol removed essentially all of the mass of nine target analytes in the NAPL after flushing with <10 pore volumes without mobilizing the NAPL or destabilizing aquifer colloids.},
doi = {10.2134/jeq1999.00472425002800040012x},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20012696}, journal = {Journal of Environmental Quality},
issn = {0047-2425},
number = 4,
volume = 28,
place = {United States},
year = {1999},
month = {8}
}