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Title: Development of a low-cost heat pump water heater for residential applications

Abstract

Air source heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have been available in the US since the early 1980s, but never reached annual sales greater than 10,000 units. While HPWHs can offer energy savings of as much as 67% over conventional electric resistance water heaters, their relatively high first cost has kept them from obtaining significant market penetration. In order to bring the energy savings benefits of HPWHs to the general water heating market, it is essential to substantially reduce the installed cost. This paper describes the development of a new heat pump water heater designed to provide reasonable energy efficiency at a substantially reduced first cost. Water heating simulations, conducted using the WATSIM analysis tool, showed that a significant amount of the typical consumer's hot water demand could be met using a reduced-capacity heat pump, with the balance of demand being met by supplemental electric resistance heating. Reducing the capacity of the heat pump offers several advantages including lower first cost and reduced impact on space heating. The goal of the present development effort was to substantiate a low-cost HPWH design approach in preparation for a broader product and market development initiative. The design approach was put into practice by modifyingmore » a conventional 300 liter (80-gallon) electric water heater. Proof-of-principle laboratory tests were successfully conducted verifying initial performance estimates. The prototype unit was then installed in a five-person household in new England for an extended field test. The unit reliability met the test family's hot water needs throughout the fall, winter and spring and continues to operate.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
20006393
Report Number(s):
CONF-980815-
TRN: IM200007%%449
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 1998 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, CA (US), 08/23/1998--08/28/1998; Other Information: 10 volume set available for $200.00; PBD: 1998; Related Information: In: 1998 ACEEE summer study on energy efficiency in buildings: Proceedings, [3100] pages.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS; WATER HEATERS; AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMPS; ENERGY EFFICIENCY; DESIGN; PERFORMANCE

Citation Formats

Zogg, R A, Barbour, E, Nowicki, B J, and Dieckman, J T. Development of a low-cost heat pump water heater for residential applications. United States: N. p., 1998. Web.
Zogg, R A, Barbour, E, Nowicki, B J, & Dieckman, J T. Development of a low-cost heat pump water heater for residential applications. United States.
Zogg, R A, Barbour, E, Nowicki, B J, and Dieckman, J T. Wed . "Development of a low-cost heat pump water heater for residential applications". United States.
@article{osti_20006393,
title = {Development of a low-cost heat pump water heater for residential applications},
author = {Zogg, R A and Barbour, E and Nowicki, B J and Dieckman, J T},
abstractNote = {Air source heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have been available in the US since the early 1980s, but never reached annual sales greater than 10,000 units. While HPWHs can offer energy savings of as much as 67% over conventional electric resistance water heaters, their relatively high first cost has kept them from obtaining significant market penetration. In order to bring the energy savings benefits of HPWHs to the general water heating market, it is essential to substantially reduce the installed cost. This paper describes the development of a new heat pump water heater designed to provide reasonable energy efficiency at a substantially reduced first cost. Water heating simulations, conducted using the WATSIM analysis tool, showed that a significant amount of the typical consumer's hot water demand could be met using a reduced-capacity heat pump, with the balance of demand being met by supplemental electric resistance heating. Reducing the capacity of the heat pump offers several advantages including lower first cost and reduced impact on space heating. The goal of the present development effort was to substantiate a low-cost HPWH design approach in preparation for a broader product and market development initiative. The design approach was put into practice by modifying a conventional 300 liter (80-gallon) electric water heater. Proof-of-principle laboratory tests were successfully conducted verifying initial performance estimates. The prototype unit was then installed in a five-person household in new England for an extended field test. The unit reliability met the test family's hot water needs throughout the fall, winter and spring and continues to operate.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20006393}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1998},
month = {7}
}

Conference:
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