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Title: Thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} materials and devices: A versatile material for flat-plate and concentrator photovoltaic applications

Abstract

Thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}(CIGS) is used as the absorber in an all-thin-film solar cell for both conventional 1-sun and concentrator applications. The absorber fabrication process is represented by time-dependent profiles of elemental Cu, In, Ga, and Se fluxes. The Cu/(In+Ga) ratio determines the phase chemistry during growth whereas the Ga/(Ga+In) ratio determines the CIGS band gap profile. All film-growth processes enter the CIGS:Cu{sub x}Se two-phase field where the Cu{sub x}Se facilitates large grain growth. Characterization of cells under 1-sun illumination reveals would-record total-area performance of 17.1%. Improvements relative to previous cells are linked to decreased inter-diffusion of In and Ga within the absorber. Cell parameters include an open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 654 mV and short-circuit current (J{sub sc}) of 33.9 mA/cm{sup 2}. A second cell was fabricated for operation under concentration. The 1-sun, direct-spectrum measurement yielded a 15.1%-efficient cell. Under 5- and 22-sun concentration, the cell improved to 16.5% and 17.2%, respectively. This achievement is significant in that it proves a compatibility of polycrystalline thin-film and concentrator technologies. Further optimization could yield 1-sun performance in excess of 18% and concentrator performance in excess of 20%. A path to this goal is outlined.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
197619
Report Number(s):
CONF-950793-
ISBN 0-8194-1890-0; TRN: IM9612%%393
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-83CH10093
Resource Type:
Book
Resource Relation:
Conference: 40. annual meeting of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, San Diego, CA (United States), 9-14 Jul 1995; Other Information: PBD: 1995; Related Information: Is Part Of Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion XIV; Lampert, C.M. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]; Deb, S.K. [ed.] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)]; Grandqvist, C.G. [ed.] [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology]; PB: 379 p.; Proceedings/SPIE, Volume 2531
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; CONCENTRATOR SOLAR CELLS; PERFORMANCE; FABRICATION; COPPER SELENIDE SOLAR CELLS; INDIUM SELENIDE SOLAR CELLS; COPPER SELENIDES; INDIUM SELENIDES; GALLIUM SELENIDES; SOLAR ABSORBERS; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

Citation Formats

Tuttle, J R, Contreras, M A, Ward, J S, Tennant, A L, Ramanathan, K R, Keane, J, and Noufi, R. Thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} materials and devices: A versatile material for flat-plate and concentrator photovoltaic applications. United States: N. p., 1995. Web.
Tuttle, J R, Contreras, M A, Ward, J S, Tennant, A L, Ramanathan, K R, Keane, J, & Noufi, R. Thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} materials and devices: A versatile material for flat-plate and concentrator photovoltaic applications. United States.
Tuttle, J R, Contreras, M A, Ward, J S, Tennant, A L, Ramanathan, K R, Keane, J, and Noufi, R. Sun . "Thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} materials and devices: A versatile material for flat-plate and concentrator photovoltaic applications". United States.
@article{osti_197619,
title = {Thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} materials and devices: A versatile material for flat-plate and concentrator photovoltaic applications},
author = {Tuttle, J R and Contreras, M A and Ward, J S and Tennant, A L and Ramanathan, K R and Keane, J and Noufi, R},
abstractNote = {Thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}(CIGS) is used as the absorber in an all-thin-film solar cell for both conventional 1-sun and concentrator applications. The absorber fabrication process is represented by time-dependent profiles of elemental Cu, In, Ga, and Se fluxes. The Cu/(In+Ga) ratio determines the phase chemistry during growth whereas the Ga/(Ga+In) ratio determines the CIGS band gap profile. All film-growth processes enter the CIGS:Cu{sub x}Se two-phase field where the Cu{sub x}Se facilitates large grain growth. Characterization of cells under 1-sun illumination reveals would-record total-area performance of 17.1%. Improvements relative to previous cells are linked to decreased inter-diffusion of In and Ga within the absorber. Cell parameters include an open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 654 mV and short-circuit current (J{sub sc}) of 33.9 mA/cm{sup 2}. A second cell was fabricated for operation under concentration. The 1-sun, direct-spectrum measurement yielded a 15.1%-efficient cell. Under 5- and 22-sun concentration, the cell improved to 16.5% and 17.2%, respectively. This achievement is significant in that it proves a compatibility of polycrystalline thin-film and concentrator technologies. Further optimization could yield 1-sun performance in excess of 18% and concentrator performance in excess of 20%. A path to this goal is outlined.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1995},
month = {12}
}

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