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Title: Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges

Abstract

As a non-beam-based additive manufacturing (AM) method, binder jet 3D printing (BJ3DP) is a process where a liquid binder is jetted on layers of powdered materials, selectively joined and then followed by densification process. Among AM technologies, binder jetting holds distinctive promise due to possibility of rapid production of complex structures to achieve isotropic properties in the 3D printed samples. By taking advantage of traditional powder metallurgy, BJ3DP machines can produce prototypes in which material properties and surface finish are similar to those attained with traditional powder metallurgy. Various powdered materials have been 3D printed, however, a typical challenge during BJ3DP is developing printing and post-processing methods that maximize part performance. Therefore, a detailed review of the physical processes during 3D printing and the fundamental science of densification after sintering and post heat treatment steps are provided to understand the microstructural evolution and properties of binder jetted parts. Further, to determine the effects of the binder jetting process on metallurgical properties, the role of powder characteristics (e.g. morphology, mean size, and distribution), printing process parameters (e.g. layer thickness, print orientation, binder saturation, print speed, and drying time), sintering (e.g. temperature and holding time) and post-processing are discussed. With the developmentmore » of AM technologies and need for post-processing in 3D printed parts, it is necessary to understand the microstructural evolution during densification process and here, processing steps are explained. Finally, opportunities for future advancement are addressed.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1763858
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1649188
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Progress in Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Progress in Materials Science; Journal ID: ISSN 0079-6425
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Mostafaei, Amir, Elliott, Amy M., Barnes, John E., Li, Fangzhou, Tan, Wenda, Cramer, Corson L., Nandwana, Peeyush, and Chmielus, Markus. Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges. United Kingdom: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100707.
Mostafaei, Amir, Elliott, Amy M., Barnes, John E., Li, Fangzhou, Tan, Wenda, Cramer, Corson L., Nandwana, Peeyush, & Chmielus, Markus. Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100707
Mostafaei, Amir, Elliott, Amy M., Barnes, John E., Li, Fangzhou, Tan, Wenda, Cramer, Corson L., Nandwana, Peeyush, and Chmielus, Markus. Mon . "Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100707.
@article{osti_1763858,
title = {Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges},
author = {Mostafaei, Amir and Elliott, Amy M. and Barnes, John E. and Li, Fangzhou and Tan, Wenda and Cramer, Corson L. and Nandwana, Peeyush and Chmielus, Markus},
abstractNote = {As a non-beam-based additive manufacturing (AM) method, binder jet 3D printing (BJ3DP) is a process where a liquid binder is jetted on layers of powdered materials, selectively joined and then followed by densification process. Among AM technologies, binder jetting holds distinctive promise due to possibility of rapid production of complex structures to achieve isotropic properties in the 3D printed samples. By taking advantage of traditional powder metallurgy, BJ3DP machines can produce prototypes in which material properties and surface finish are similar to those attained with traditional powder metallurgy. Various powdered materials have been 3D printed, however, a typical challenge during BJ3DP is developing printing and post-processing methods that maximize part performance. Therefore, a detailed review of the physical processes during 3D printing and the fundamental science of densification after sintering and post heat treatment steps are provided to understand the microstructural evolution and properties of binder jetted parts. Further, to determine the effects of the binder jetting process on metallurgical properties, the role of powder characteristics (e.g. morphology, mean size, and distribution), printing process parameters (e.g. layer thickness, print orientation, binder saturation, print speed, and drying time), sintering (e.g. temperature and holding time) and post-processing are discussed. With the development of AM technologies and need for post-processing in 3D printed parts, it is necessary to understand the microstructural evolution during densification process and here, processing steps are explained. Finally, opportunities for future advancement are addressed.},
doi = {10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100707},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1763858}, journal = {Progress in Materials Science},
issn = {0079-6425},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2020},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100707

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journal, April 2016


Effect of particle size on three dimensional printed mesh structures
journal, June 2009


Quantification of powder wetting by drop penetration time
journal, April 2015


3D printing of hydroxyapatite: Effect of binder concentration in pre-coated particle on part strength
journal, May 2007


Additive manufacturing and postprocessing of Ti-6Al-4V for superior mechanical properties
journal, October 2016


Contact angle, wetting, and adhesion: a critical review
journal, January 1992


Additive manufacturing of WC-20Co components by 3D gel-printing
journal, January 2018


Joining of Inconel 718 and 316 Stainless Steel using electron beam melting additive manufacturing technology
journal, March 2016


Fabrication of barium titanate by binder jetting additive manufacturing technology
journal, June 2015


Effects of layer thickness and binder saturation level parameters on 3D printing process
journal, July 2010


Three-dimensional printing of hard materials
journal, February 2020


3D printing of porcelain by layerwise slurry deposition
journal, August 2018


Microstructural Evaluation of Magnetocaloric Ni-Co-Mn-Sn Produced by Directed Energy Deposition
journal, July 2016


Binder jetting additive manufacturing of aluminum nitride components
journal, August 2019


3D printing of bone substitute implants using calcium phosphate and bioactive glasses
journal, September 2010


Effects of Heat Treatment on the Mechanical and Degradation Properties of 3D-Printed Calcium-Sulphate-Based Scaffolds
journal, January 2013


Modeling the granule formation mechanism from single drop impact on a powder bed
journal, March 2013


Effect of moisture and magnesium stearate concentration on flow properties of cohesive granular materials
journal, May 2007


Design guidelines for laser additive manufacturing of lightweight structures in TiAl6V4
journal, February 2015


The fabrication of metal matrix composites by a pressureless infiltration technique
journal, January 1991


Osteoconduction and osteoinduction of low-temperature 3D printed bioceramic implants
journal, March 2008


Binder Jet 3D Printing of 316L Stainless Steel: Effects of HIP on Fatigue
journal, August 2019


Single asperity nanoscratch behaviour of HIPed and cast Stellite 6 alloys
journal, April 2014


A comparison of tensile failure in 3D-printed and natural sandstone
journal, August 2017


Three-Dimensional Printing of Ti3SiC2-Based Ceramics: Rapid Communications of the American Ceramic Society
journal, February 2011


Bone response to 3D periodic hydroxyapatite scaffolds with and without tailored microporosity to deliver bone morphogenetic protein 2
journal, January 2005


The mechanism of densification during sintering of metallic particles
journal, January 1956


On the Spreading of Liquids on Solid Surfaces: Static and Dynamic Contact Lines
journal, January 1979


Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Powder Packing and Sintering in Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing of Metals
journal, June 2017


Steel Parts with Tailored Material Gradients by 3D-Printing Using Nano-Particulate Ink
journal, August 2005


Wettability of tungsten carbide by liquid binders in WC–Co cemented carbides: Is it complete for all carbon contents?
journal, January 2017


Additive manufacturing of metallic components – Process, structure and properties
journal, March 2018


Effect of Mn incorporation for Ni on the properties of melt spun off-stoichiometric compositions of NiMnGa alloys
journal, May 2011


An improved integral non-linear model for the contact of particles in distinct element simulations
journal, March 2005


Industrial Additive Manufacturing: A manufacturing systems perspective
journal, November 2017


Description of agglomerate growth
journal, July 1998


A novel method to fabricate TiAl intermetallic alloy 3D parts using additive manufacturing
journal, April 2017


Synthesis of the In Situ Nb-Si Composites by Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing Technology
journal, September 2019


Entrapment of air during imbibition of agglomerated powder beds
journal, May 2017


Effect of Gray Scale Binder Levels on Additive Manufacturing of Porous Scaffolds with Heterogeneous Properties
journal, September 2014


Energy and Material Flow Analysis of Binder-jetting Additive Manufacturing Processes
journal, January 2014


Piezo-Plunger Jetting Technology: An Experimental Study on Jetting Characteristics of Filled Epoxy Polymers
journal, February 2019


Additive manufacturing of metallic cellular materials via three-dimensional printing
journal, July 2010


Interstitial elements in titanium powder metallurgy: sources and control
journal, July 2011


High resolution pore size analysis in metallic powders by X-ray tomography
journal, November 2016


3D-printed rib-enforced shell sand mold for aluminum castings
journal, February 2018


The Effect of Moisture on Powder Flow and on Compaction and Physical Stability of Tablets
journal, January 1989


Life Cycle Assessment of 3D Printed Products in a Distributed Manufacturing System: LCA-Distributed Manufacturing System
journal, June 2017


Effect of the oxygen content in solution on the static and cyclic deformation of titanium foams
journal, June 2009


Dissolutive Capillary Penetration with Expanding Pores and Transient Contact Angles
journal, November 2000


Wear properties of sintered WC-12%Co processed via Binder Jet 3D Printing (BJ3DP)
journal, January 2019


Influence of grain size and grain-size distribution on workability of granules with 3D printing
journal, August 2013


Drop Penetration into Porous Powder Beds
journal, September 2002


Influence of printing parameters on the transformation efficiency of 3D‐printed plaster of paris to hydroxyapatite and its properties
journal, September 2012


An experimental study into the effects of bulk and flow behaviour of laser sintering polymer powders on resulting part properties
journal, January 2015


Additive Manufacturing Processes: Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Binder Jetting—Selection Guidelines
journal, June 2017


3D print of polymer bonded rare-earth magnets, and 3D magnetic field scanning with an end-user 3D printer
journal, October 2016


The influence of powder apparent density on the density in direct laser-sintered metallic parts
journal, February 2007


Fragmentation and restructuring of soft-agglomerates under shear
journal, February 2010


Development and Design of Binder Systems for Titanium Metal Injection Molding: An Overview
journal, October 2012


Tracking Global Growth in Industrial-Scale Additive Manufacturing
journal, March 2014


Drop spreading and penetration into pre-wetted powders
journal, May 2013


An exploration of binder jetting of copper
journal, March 2015


Fabrication of Metal and Alloy Components by Additive Manufacturing: Examples of 3D Materials Science
journal, April 2012


Densification and shape retention in supersolidus liquid phase sintering
journal, December 1999


Development of a new calcium phosphate powder-binder system for the 3D printing of patient specific implants
journal, January 2007


Fabrication of Functionally Gradient Ultrafine-Grained WC-Co Composites
journal, September 2013


Densification and Properties of 420 Stainless Steel Produced by Three-Dimensional Printing With Addition of Si3N4 Powder
journal, October 2009


A robust process optimization for a powder type rapid prototyper
journal, August 2002


Additive manufacturing and sustainability: an exploratory study of the advantages and challenges
journal, November 2016


Lattice Boltzmann study on the dynamics of successive droplets impact on a solid surface
journal, May 2016


Solid free-form fabrication of drug delivery devices
journal, June 1996


Effects of thermal treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of a Co–Cr–Mo–W biomedical alloy produced by laser sintering
journal, July 2016


Effect of heat-treatment temperature on microstructures and mechanical properties of Co–Cr–Mo alloys fabricated by selective laser melting
journal, May 2018


Additive manufacturing: technology, applications and research needs
journal, May 2013


Design and characterisation of food grade powders and inks for microstructure control using 3D printing
journal, March 2018


Economic implications of 3D printing: Market structure models in light of additive manufacturing revisited
journal, June 2015


3D printing using concrete extrusion: A roadmap for research
journal, October 2018


Critical success factors for adoption of 3D printing
journal, July 2018


A review on 3D printed bioimplants
journal, May 2015


Novel processing of iron–manganese alloy-based biomaterials by inkjet 3-D printing
journal, November 2013


Fabrication of porous silicon nitride ceramics using binder jetting technology
journal, July 2016


Microstructure and properties of Ni–Mn–Ga alloys produced by rapid solidification and pulsed electric current sintering
journal, May 2011


Effect of binder content on the material properties of polymethyl methacrylate fabricated by three dimensional printing technique
journal, October 2008


Properties of as-deposited and heat-treated Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy processed by directed energy deposition
journal, July 2018


Magnetocaloric Effect in Ni–Mn–Ga Alloys
journal, November 2008


Influence of Cutting Parameters and Tool Wear on the Surface Integrity of Cobalt-Based Stellite 6 Alloy When Machined Under a Dry Cutting Environment
journal, November 2016


Binder droplet impact mechanism on a hydroxyapatite microsphere surface in 3D printing of bone scaffolds
journal, April 2015


Moisture based three-dimensional printing of calcium phosphate structures for scaffold engineering
journal, February 2013


Binder jetting of ceramics: Powders, binders, printing parameters, equipment, and post-treatment
journal, July 2019


Investigation of Sintering Shrinkage in Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing Process
journal, January 2017


Toward 3D Printed Bioactive Titanium Scaffolds with Bimodal Pore Size Distribution for Bone Ingrowth
journal, January 2013


The role of particle size on the laser sintering of iron powder
journal, October 2004


Fabrication of SiC whisker-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composites based on 3D printing and chemical vapor infiltration technology
journal, September 2019


Additive manufacturing: scientific and technological challenges, market uptake and opportunities
journal, January 2018


Powder bed binder jet printed alloy 625: Densification, microstructure and mechanical properties
journal, October 2016


Wettability and spreading kinetics of Al and Mg on TiC
journal, June 2003


Characterizing Binder–Powder Interaction in Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing Via Sessile Drop Goniometry
journal, October 2018


Electron Microscopy Investigation of Binder Saturation and Microstructural Defects in Functional Parts Made by Additive Manufacturing
journal, July 2016


Nickel base superalloy GH4049 prepared by powder metallurgy
journal, April 2009


Effects of Hot Isostatic Pressing on Copper Parts Fabricated via Binder Jetting
journal, January 2017


Particle-based simulation of powder application in additive manufacturing
journal, January 2016


Microstructure and tensile properties optimization of MIM418 superalloy by heat treatment
journal, January 2016


Three-dimensional printing of metal parts for tooling and other applications
journal, November 2000


Additive manufacturing of biomaterials
journal, April 2018


Recent advances in 3D printing of porous ceramics: A review
journal, December 2017


Binder-Jet Printing of Fine Stainless Steel Powder with Varied Final Density
journal, November 2016


Manufacturing and characterization of porous titanium components
journal, September 2014


Solid State Sintered 3-D Printing Component by Using Inkjet (Binder) Method
journal, January 2016


Process limitations of 3D printing model rock
journal, April 2018


Evaluation of 3D printing for dies in low volume forging of 7075 aluminum helicopter parts
journal, December 2005


3D printing of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds intended for use in bone tissue engineering applications
journal, February 2015


The cross-disciplinary emergence of 3D printed bioceramic scaffolds in orthopedic bioengineering
journal, January 2018


Microstructure, phase transformation and mechanical property of Ni–Mn–Ga particles/Mg composites
journal, October 2014


The effect of aging treatment on the fracture toughness and impact strength of injection molded Ni-625 superalloy parts
journal, October 2015


Process development toward full-density stainless steel parts with binder jetting printing
journal, October 2017


Selective laser melting of La(Fe,Co,Si) 13 geometries for magnetic refrigeration
journal, July 2013


Why Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys?
journal, June 2012


3D printing of Al2O3/Cu–O interpenetrating phase composite
journal, September 2010


Inkjet-Printed Line Morphologies and Temperature Control of the Coffee Ring Effect
journal, March 2008


Segregation of titanium powder with polydisperse size distribution: Spectral and correlation analyses
journal, March 2015


Wetting, disintegration and dissolution of agglomerated water soluble powders
journal, January 2011


Acoustic emission technique used for detecting early stages of precipitation during aging of Inconel 625
journal, December 2003


High Speed Imaging and Analysis of Jet and Drop Formation
journal, January 2007


Sintering regimes and resulting microstructure and properties of binder jet 3D printed Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys
journal, August 2018


Fatigue behavior of highly porous titanium produced by powder metallurgy with temporary space holders
journal, March 2016


Process Development of Porcelain Ceramic Material with Binder Jetting Process for Dental Applications
journal, January 2016


Atomization process for metal powder
journal, October 2004


Ni-Mn-Ga micro-trusses via sintering of 3D-printed inks containing elemental powders
journal, January 2018


Size Effects on Magnetic Actuation in Ni-Mn-Ga Shape-Memory Alloys
journal, October 2010


Effect of oxides on binder burnout during ceramics processing
journal, June 1989


Effects of compaction pressure and particle shape on the porosity and compression mechanical properties of sintered Ti6Al4V powder compacts for hard tissue implantation
journal, January 2008


Powder bed binder jet 3D printing of Inconel 718: Densification, microstructural evolution and challenges☆
journal, August 2017


Giant magnetic-field-induced strains in polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga foams
journal, September 2009


Material characteristics of binder jet 3D printed hydrated CSA cement with the addition of fine aggregates
journal, May 2019


Microstructural evolution of injection molded gas- and water-atomized 316L stainless steel powder during sintering
journal, January 2005


Understanding in vivo response and mechanical property variation in MgO, SrO and SiO2 doped β-TCP
journal, June 2011


Modeling of infiltration kinetics for liquid metal processing of composites
journal, February 1988


Ink-Jet Printing of Binders for Ceramic Components
journal, April 2002


Drop penetration time in heterogeneous powder beds
journal, December 2009


Critical influences of particle size and adhesion on the powder layer uniformity in metal additive manufacturing
journal, April 2019


The need for Powder Characterisation in the Additive Manufacturing Industry and the Establishment of a National Facility
journal, August 2015


Optimization of Binder Jetting Using Taguchi Method
journal, January 2017


Open-cellular copper structures fabricated by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting
journal, June 2011


The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing
journal, March 2016


The determination of the mechanism of sintering
journal, February 1967


Methods for Minimizing Segregation: A Review
journal, October 2004


Interface- and diffusion-limited capillary rise of reactive melts with a transient contact angle
journal, July 2002


Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review
journal, April 2014


Mechanical Properties of the Stellite 6 Cobalt Alloy Implanted with Nitrogen Ions
journal, August 2017


Discrete element method simulation of cohesive particles mixing under magnetically assisted impaction
journal, July 2013


Binder Jet Printed Iron Silicon with Low Hysteresis Loss
conference, May 2019


Direct 3D powder printing of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for substitution of complex bone defects
journal, January 2014


Tailor-made tricalcium phosphate bone implant directly fabricated by a three-dimensional ink-jet printer
journal, December 2006


A review on powder-based additive manufacturing for tissue engineering: selective laser sintering and inkjet 3D printing
journal, June 2015


Inkjet printing - the physics of manipulating liquid jets and drops
journal, March 2008


Characterization of Gas Atomized Ni-Mn-Ga Powders
journal, January 2015


Magnetic field induced strain and damping behavior of Ni–Mn–Ga particles/epoxy resin composite
journal, August 2014


A three-dimensional osteochondral composite scaffold for articular cartilage repair
journal, December 2002


Self-patterning of epitaxial Ni–Mn–Ga/MgO(001) thin films
journal, June 2016


Contact angle hysteresis: a review of fundamentals and applications
journal, September 2012


Fabrication of Al2O3-based composites by indirect 3D-printing
journal, February 2006


Flow mechanisms in high pressure gas atomization
journal, November 1991


Microstructure characteristics and fractal analysis of 3D-printed sandstone using micro-CT and SEM-EDS
journal, April 2019


Sintering of 3D-Printed Glass/HAp Composites
journal, July 2012


Mechanical properties of porous titanium compacts prepared by powder sintering
journal, December 2003


Segregation of Particulate Materials – Mechanisms and Testers
journal, January 1996


Lattice Misfit Measurement in Inconel 625 by X-Ray Diffraction Technique
journal, September 2008