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Title: Adaptive complex nanocomposite alloys for burning plasma-material interface tunability

Abstract

Of the various materials options at the plasma-material interface in future burning-plasma magnetic fusion devices (i.e., graphite, liquid metals, etc.) refractory metals (molybdenum, tungsten etc.) are attractive for use during steady-state, high-temperature (700-1000 C) operation with heat flux ranging between 10-20 MW/m 2. However, both molybdenum and tungsten have serious performance issues regarding radiation tolerance (brittle fracture, hardening, swelling, transmutation, etc. even at relatively high temperatures) and hydrogen retention/permeation that must be addressed to make them a viable option for steady-state burning plasma operation in fusion reactors (e.g. DEMO). As a plasma-facing material, additional tungsten limitations include: irradiation-driven nanostructuring on tungsten surfaces (e.g. morphology evolution), blistering and embrittlement of tungsten due to high exposure from hydrogen and helium irradiation, and extremely low tolerances for tungsten impurity emission into the core plasma. However, compared to low Z materials such as carbon and beryllium, tungsten’s high melting point, high thermal conductivity, low tritium retention, and low plasma-induced sputter threshold has rendered it one of the best candidate armor material options for the extreme fusion environments (e.g., 0.1-1.0 dpa, > 5 MW/m 2) encountered in future plasma-burning fusion reactors. This program is focused in discovery and fundamental understanding of novel self-healing and adaptivemore » materials for the PMI (plasma-material interface) envisioned for future plasma-burning extreme environments in thermonuclear fusion reactors that can provide enhanced radiation-tolerance or resistance. Current knowledge gaps in PMI are, in part, linked to the lack of understanding of multi-scale interactions at the plasma-material interface and the limited discovery and development of novel material interfaces that can be designed to adapt to extreme fusion reactor conditions. This supplement to the existing program proposed supports the DOE FES Burning Plasma Science: Long Pulse—Materials & Fusion Nuclear Science mission by two primary objectives building on the first three years of this program: Understanding the synergistic mechanical and PMI properties of extreme-refined tungsten alloys and Establishing an understanding of the liquid/solid hybrid material interface for PFC applications. The overall goal of this program is to lay the foundational understanding of advanced materials for the plasma-material interface that enable plasma-burning fusion reactor operation. Development of materials unique to these extreme conditions take extraordinary effort and the goal is to study hypothesis-driven questions in the context of PMI armor materials that will lay the groundwork a more extensive development phase. PMI studies proposed focus on significant PMI knowledge gaps identified by the PMI fusion community in the recent DOE Department of Energy Fusion Energy Sciences Workshop on Plasma Materials Interactions 2015. The work in this program combines fundamental and discovery research that establishes yet unknown process-composition-property-function relations of novel “self-healing” and “adaptive” plasma-facing armor material interfaces. The proposal provides a unique perspective at the interface of materials science and PMI. Materials designed could have either self-healing properties where “self-healing” is defined as materials that freely can repair themselves after damage without any external influence from their environment; or adaptive materials properties. Where “adaptive” is defined as intrinsic properties coupled to an external influence (e.g. radiation stimulant), whereby during exposure to a defined extreme environment the material performance is maintained or improved. This paradigm to PMI materials design is transformative in that the design of the plasma-material interface is closely coupled with its behavior under well-defined magnetic fusion plasma edge conditions and studied with robust in-situ performance characterization to decipher the dynamic material properties as they evolve during plasma exposure and thus help define the processing schemes to design the same.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES)
OSTI Identifier:
1740016
Report Number(s):
DOE-UIUC-14267-1
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0014267
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Related Information: n/a
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; plasma-material interactions, plasma-facing components, tungsten alloys, liquid-metals, lithium

Citation Formats

Allain, Jean Paul Paul. Adaptive complex nanocomposite alloys for burning plasma-material interface tunability. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.2172/1740016.
Allain, Jean Paul Paul. Adaptive complex nanocomposite alloys for burning plasma-material interface tunability. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1740016
Allain, Jean Paul Paul. Sun . "Adaptive complex nanocomposite alloys for burning plasma-material interface tunability". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1740016. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1740016.
@article{osti_1740016,
title = {Adaptive complex nanocomposite alloys for burning plasma-material interface tunability},
author = {Allain, Jean Paul Paul},
abstractNote = {Of the various materials options at the plasma-material interface in future burning-plasma magnetic fusion devices (i.e., graphite, liquid metals, etc.) refractory metals (molybdenum, tungsten etc.) are attractive for use during steady-state, high-temperature (700-1000 C) operation with heat flux ranging between 10-20 MW/m2. However, both molybdenum and tungsten have serious performance issues regarding radiation tolerance (brittle fracture, hardening, swelling, transmutation, etc. even at relatively high temperatures) and hydrogen retention/permeation that must be addressed to make them a viable option for steady-state burning plasma operation in fusion reactors (e.g. DEMO). As a plasma-facing material, additional tungsten limitations include: irradiation-driven nanostructuring on tungsten surfaces (e.g. morphology evolution), blistering and embrittlement of tungsten due to high exposure from hydrogen and helium irradiation, and extremely low tolerances for tungsten impurity emission into the core plasma. However, compared to low Z materials such as carbon and beryllium, tungsten’s high melting point, high thermal conductivity, low tritium retention, and low plasma-induced sputter threshold has rendered it one of the best candidate armor material options for the extreme fusion environments (e.g., 0.1-1.0 dpa, > 5 MW/m2) encountered in future plasma-burning fusion reactors. This program is focused in discovery and fundamental understanding of novel self-healing and adaptive materials for the PMI (plasma-material interface) envisioned for future plasma-burning extreme environments in thermonuclear fusion reactors that can provide enhanced radiation-tolerance or resistance. Current knowledge gaps in PMI are, in part, linked to the lack of understanding of multi-scale interactions at the plasma-material interface and the limited discovery and development of novel material interfaces that can be designed to adapt to extreme fusion reactor conditions. This supplement to the existing program proposed supports the DOE FES Burning Plasma Science: Long Pulse—Materials & Fusion Nuclear Science mission by two primary objectives building on the first three years of this program: Understanding the synergistic mechanical and PMI properties of extreme-refined tungsten alloys and Establishing an understanding of the liquid/solid hybrid material interface for PFC applications. The overall goal of this program is to lay the foundational understanding of advanced materials for the plasma-material interface that enable plasma-burning fusion reactor operation. Development of materials unique to these extreme conditions take extraordinary effort and the goal is to study hypothesis-driven questions in the context of PMI armor materials that will lay the groundwork a more extensive development phase. PMI studies proposed focus on significant PMI knowledge gaps identified by the PMI fusion community in the recent DOE Department of Energy Fusion Energy Sciences Workshop on Plasma Materials Interactions 2015. The work in this program combines fundamental and discovery research that establishes yet unknown process-composition-property-function relations of novel “self-healing” and “adaptive” plasma-facing armor material interfaces. The proposal provides a unique perspective at the interface of materials science and PMI. Materials designed could have either self-healing properties where “self-healing” is defined as materials that freely can repair themselves after damage without any external influence from their environment; or adaptive materials properties. Where “adaptive” is defined as intrinsic properties coupled to an external influence (e.g. radiation stimulant), whereby during exposure to a defined extreme environment the material performance is maintained or improved. This paradigm to PMI materials design is transformative in that the design of the plasma-material interface is closely coupled with its behavior under well-defined magnetic fusion plasma edge conditions and studied with robust in-situ performance characterization to decipher the dynamic material properties as they evolve during plasma exposure and thus help define the processing schemes to design the same.},
doi = {10.2172/1740016},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1740016}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {12}
}

Works referenced in this record: