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Title: High-performance molded composites using additively manufactured preforms with controlled fiber and pore morphology

Abstract

Here, large-scale multimaterial preforms produced by additive manufacturing (AM) underwent compression molding (CM) to produce high-performance thermoplastic composites reinforced with short carbon fibers. AM and CM techniques were integrated to control the fiber orientation (microstructure) and to reduce void content for the improved mechanical performance of the composite. The new integrated manufacturing technique is termed “additive manufacturing-compression molding” (AM-CM). For the present study, the most common materials were used for large-scale printing, i.e., acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), carbon fiber (CF)–filled ABS (CF/ABS) and glass fiber (GF)–filled ABS (GF/ABS). Three different manufacturing processes; (a) AM (b) extrusion compression molding (ECM), and (c) AM-CM were used to prepare four different panel configurations: (1) neat ABS, (2) CF/ABS, (3) overmold (CF/ABS over neat ABS), and (4) sandwich (neat ABS between two CF/ABS layers). The mechanical properties (tensile and flexural strength and modulus, and Izod impact energy) of samples prepared via all three manufacturing processes were compared. X-ray microcomputer tomography was employed to evaluate the fiber orientation distribution and the volumetric porosity content. The preform maintained high fiber alignment (≈ 82% of fibers within the range of 0–20° in the deposition direction), and the volumetric porosity was reduced by 50% from 3.79% to 1.91%more » after compression. The alignment of long pores along the deposition direction was also observed. The mechanical properties are discussed with correlation to the fiber alignment and void content in the samples. CF/ABS samples prepared by AM-CM showed significant improvement of 11.15%, 35.27%, 28.6%, and 74.3% in the tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, and flexural modulus, respectively, when compared with samples prepared by ECM. Unique aspects of this study are the demonstration of large-scale multimaterial AM and the use of multimaterials as preforms to make high-performance composites.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Energy Efficiency Office. Advanced Manufacturing Office
OSTI Identifier:
1735428
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1809818
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Additive Manufacturing
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 37; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 2214-8604
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; additive manufacturing; multimaterial; fiber orientation distribution; porosity; mechanical properties

Citation Formats

NLN, Vipin, Alwekar, Shailesh, Kunc, Vlastimil, Cakmak, Ercan, Kishore, Vidya, Smith, Tyler, Lindahl, John, Vaidya, Uday, Blue, Craig A., Theodore, Merlin, Kim, Pum, and Hassen, Ahmed. High-performance molded composites using additively manufactured preforms with controlled fiber and pore morphology. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2020.101733.
NLN, Vipin, Alwekar, Shailesh, Kunc, Vlastimil, Cakmak, Ercan, Kishore, Vidya, Smith, Tyler, Lindahl, John, Vaidya, Uday, Blue, Craig A., Theodore, Merlin, Kim, Pum, & Hassen, Ahmed. High-performance molded composites using additively manufactured preforms with controlled fiber and pore morphology. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101733
NLN, Vipin, Alwekar, Shailesh, Kunc, Vlastimil, Cakmak, Ercan, Kishore, Vidya, Smith, Tyler, Lindahl, John, Vaidya, Uday, Blue, Craig A., Theodore, Merlin, Kim, Pum, and Hassen, Ahmed. 2020. "High-performance molded composites using additively manufactured preforms with controlled fiber and pore morphology". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101733.
@article{osti_1735428,
title = {High-performance molded composites using additively manufactured preforms with controlled fiber and pore morphology},
author = {NLN, Vipin and Alwekar, Shailesh and Kunc, Vlastimil and Cakmak, Ercan and Kishore, Vidya and Smith, Tyler and Lindahl, John and Vaidya, Uday and Blue, Craig A. and Theodore, Merlin and Kim, Pum and Hassen, Ahmed},
abstractNote = {Here, large-scale multimaterial preforms produced by additive manufacturing (AM) underwent compression molding (CM) to produce high-performance thermoplastic composites reinforced with short carbon fibers. AM and CM techniques were integrated to control the fiber orientation (microstructure) and to reduce void content for the improved mechanical performance of the composite. The new integrated manufacturing technique is termed “additive manufacturing-compression molding” (AM-CM). For the present study, the most common materials were used for large-scale printing, i.e., acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), carbon fiber (CF)–filled ABS (CF/ABS) and glass fiber (GF)–filled ABS (GF/ABS). Three different manufacturing processes; (a) AM (b) extrusion compression molding (ECM), and (c) AM-CM were used to prepare four different panel configurations: (1) neat ABS, (2) CF/ABS, (3) overmold (CF/ABS over neat ABS), and (4) sandwich (neat ABS between two CF/ABS layers). The mechanical properties (tensile and flexural strength and modulus, and Izod impact energy) of samples prepared via all three manufacturing processes were compared. X-ray microcomputer tomography was employed to evaluate the fiber orientation distribution and the volumetric porosity content. The preform maintained high fiber alignment (≈ 82% of fibers within the range of 0–20° in the deposition direction), and the volumetric porosity was reduced by 50% from 3.79% to 1.91% after compression. The alignment of long pores along the deposition direction was also observed. The mechanical properties are discussed with correlation to the fiber alignment and void content in the samples. CF/ABS samples prepared by AM-CM showed significant improvement of 11.15%, 35.27%, 28.6%, and 74.3% in the tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, and flexural modulus, respectively, when compared with samples prepared by ECM. Unique aspects of this study are the demonstration of large-scale multimaterial AM and the use of multimaterials as preforms to make high-performance composites.},
doi = {10.1016/j.addma.2020.101733},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1735428}, journal = {Additive Manufacturing},
issn = {2214-8604},
number = C,
volume = 37,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {11}
}

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