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Title: 3D printed transparent ceramic YAG laser rods: Matching the core-clad refractive index

Abstract

Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) solid state laser gain media rods with an active Neodymium-doped core and an optically-clear cladding region were additively manufactured via direct-ink-writing (DIW), followed by sintering and hot isostatic pressing to form fully dense optical ceramics. Lutetium and Gadolinium were chosen as optically-inert co-doping ions in the clad to match the increase in refractive index caused by the Neodymium in the core. Additionally, either 11.6% Lutetium or 3.8% Gadolinium can be used to match the index change from 2% neodymium; however, differences in diffusion distances across the core-clad interface lead to large fluctuations in index in that region. These index fluctuations can be minimized either by matching dopants with similar diffusion distances, or by implementing a gradual gradient in the doping profile, possible through DIW, rather than a sharp compositional interface attainable via more standard fabrication methods. This improvement in index homogeneity resulted in a 40% improvement in lasing performance compared with that of a core-clad rod fabricated with a sharp interface between the doped and undoped regions.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1662046
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-810284
Journal ID: ISSN 0925-3467; 1016170
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; 16-SI-03
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Optical Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 107; Journal ID: ISSN 0925-3467
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Transparent ceramic; YAG; laser rod; additive manufacturing; refractive index

Citation Formats

Seeley, Z., Yee, T., Cherepy, N., Drobshoff, A., Herrera, O., Ryerson, R., and Payne, S. A. 3D printed transparent ceramic YAG laser rods: Matching the core-clad refractive index. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1016/j.optmat.2020.110121.
Seeley, Z., Yee, T., Cherepy, N., Drobshoff, A., Herrera, O., Ryerson, R., & Payne, S. A. 3D printed transparent ceramic YAG laser rods: Matching the core-clad refractive index. United States. doi:10.1016/j.optmat.2020.110121.
Seeley, Z., Yee, T., Cherepy, N., Drobshoff, A., Herrera, O., Ryerson, R., and Payne, S. A. Tue . "3D printed transparent ceramic YAG laser rods: Matching the core-clad refractive index". United States. doi:10.1016/j.optmat.2020.110121.
@article{osti_1662046,
title = {3D printed transparent ceramic YAG laser rods: Matching the core-clad refractive index},
author = {Seeley, Z. and Yee, T. and Cherepy, N. and Drobshoff, A. and Herrera, O. and Ryerson, R. and Payne, S. A.},
abstractNote = {Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) solid state laser gain media rods with an active Neodymium-doped core and an optically-clear cladding region were additively manufactured via direct-ink-writing (DIW), followed by sintering and hot isostatic pressing to form fully dense optical ceramics. Lutetium and Gadolinium were chosen as optically-inert co-doping ions in the clad to match the increase in refractive index caused by the Neodymium in the core. Additionally, either 11.6% Lutetium or 3.8% Gadolinium can be used to match the index change from 2% neodymium; however, differences in diffusion distances across the core-clad interface lead to large fluctuations in index in that region. These index fluctuations can be minimized either by matching dopants with similar diffusion distances, or by implementing a gradual gradient in the doping profile, possible through DIW, rather than a sharp compositional interface attainable via more standard fabrication methods. This improvement in index homogeneity resulted in a 40% improvement in lasing performance compared with that of a core-clad rod fabricated with a sharp interface between the doped and undoped regions.},
doi = {10.1016/j.optmat.2020.110121},
journal = {Optical Materials},
issn = {0925-3467},
number = ,
volume = 107,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
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