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Title: Stability and control of power systems with high penetrations of inverter-based resources: An accessible review of current knowledge and open questions

Abstract

As power system renewable energy penetrations increase, the ways in which key renewable technologies such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) differ from thermal generators become more apparent. Many studies have examined the variability and uncertainty of such generators and described how generation and load can be balanced for a wide variety of annual energy penetrations, at timescales from seconds to years. Another important characteristic of these resources is asynchronicity, the result of using inverters to interface the prime energy source with the power system as opposed to synchronous generators. Unlike synchronous generators, whose frequency of alternating current (AC) injection is physically coupled to the rotation of the machine itself, inverter based asynchronous generators do not share the same physical coupling with the generated frequency. These subtle differences impact the operations of power systems developed around the characteristics of synchronous generators. In this paper we review current knowledge and open research questions concerning the interplay between asynchronous inverter-based resources (IBRs) and cycle- to second-scale power system dynamics, with a focus on how stability and control may be impacted or need to be achieved differently when there are high instantaneous penetrations of IBRs across an interconnection. This work does not seekmore » to provide a comprehensive review of the latest developments, but is instead intended to be accessible to any reader with an engineering background and an interest in power systems and renewable energy. As such, the paper includes basic material on power electronics, control schemes for IBRs, and power system stability; and uses this background material to describe potential impacts of IBRs on power system stability, operational challenges associated with large amounts of distributed IBR generation, and modern power system simulation trends driven by IBR characteristics.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  2. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  3. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Renewable Power Office. Solar Energy Technologies Office
OSTI Identifier:
1660134
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1809424
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5D00-76582
Journal ID: ISSN 0038-092X; MainId:7256;UUID:9b9da5b3-f107-4dde-b84d-ae25199a7db3;MainAdminID:15171
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Solar Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 210; Journal ID: ISSN 0038-092X
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; inverter-based resources; power electronic converters; power system stability; renewable energy; synchronous machine converters

Citation Formats

Kenyon, Richard, Bossart, Matthew, Markovic, Marija, Doubleday, Kate, Matsuda-Dunn, Reiko, Mitova, Stefania, Julien, Simon A., Hale, Elaine, and Hodge, Bri-Mathias. Stability and control of power systems with high penetrations of inverter-based resources: An accessible review of current knowledge and open questions. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2020.05.053.
Kenyon, Richard, Bossart, Matthew, Markovic, Marija, Doubleday, Kate, Matsuda-Dunn, Reiko, Mitova, Stefania, Julien, Simon A., Hale, Elaine, & Hodge, Bri-Mathias. Stability and control of power systems with high penetrations of inverter-based resources: An accessible review of current knowledge and open questions. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2020.05.053
Kenyon, Richard, Bossart, Matthew, Markovic, Marija, Doubleday, Kate, Matsuda-Dunn, Reiko, Mitova, Stefania, Julien, Simon A., Hale, Elaine, and Hodge, Bri-Mathias. 2020. "Stability and control of power systems with high penetrations of inverter-based resources: An accessible review of current knowledge and open questions". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2020.05.053. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1660134.
@article{osti_1660134,
title = {Stability and control of power systems with high penetrations of inverter-based resources: An accessible review of current knowledge and open questions},
author = {Kenyon, Richard and Bossart, Matthew and Markovic, Marija and Doubleday, Kate and Matsuda-Dunn, Reiko and Mitova, Stefania and Julien, Simon A. and Hale, Elaine and Hodge, Bri-Mathias},
abstractNote = {As power system renewable energy penetrations increase, the ways in which key renewable technologies such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) differ from thermal generators become more apparent. Many studies have examined the variability and uncertainty of such generators and described how generation and load can be balanced for a wide variety of annual energy penetrations, at timescales from seconds to years. Another important characteristic of these resources is asynchronicity, the result of using inverters to interface the prime energy source with the power system as opposed to synchronous generators. Unlike synchronous generators, whose frequency of alternating current (AC) injection is physically coupled to the rotation of the machine itself, inverter based asynchronous generators do not share the same physical coupling with the generated frequency. These subtle differences impact the operations of power systems developed around the characteristics of synchronous generators. In this paper we review current knowledge and open research questions concerning the interplay between asynchronous inverter-based resources (IBRs) and cycle- to second-scale power system dynamics, with a focus on how stability and control may be impacted or need to be achieved differently when there are high instantaneous penetrations of IBRs across an interconnection. This work does not seek to provide a comprehensive review of the latest developments, but is instead intended to be accessible to any reader with an engineering background and an interest in power systems and renewable energy. As such, the paper includes basic material on power electronics, control schemes for IBRs, and power system stability; and uses this background material to describe potential impacts of IBRs on power system stability, operational challenges associated with large amounts of distributed IBR generation, and modern power system simulation trends driven by IBR characteristics.},
doi = {10.1016/j.solener.2020.05.053},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1660134}, journal = {Solar Energy},
issn = {0038-092X},
number = ,
volume = 210,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {6}
}

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