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Title: Data Analytics for Electrical Distribution Systems with Micro PMUs (GMLC 1.4.9 Technical Report)

Abstract

This report describes how electrical utilities with residential, industrial, commercial and government customers make decisions using Data Analytics (DA) applications and discusses how OpenFMB was leveraged to share that data among disparate types of devices for DA. OpenFMB is a data standard developed by utilities for distributed communication and control of power system assets. Here we explored how OpenFMB can be used for sharing analytics and what those analytics could be for a set of representative grid devices. A review of DA applications performed by electrical utilities and customers is presented. An overview of how the testbed we used was built and configured is summarized. Several experiments which were carried out to explore the capabilities of OpenFMB alongside other data sharing mechanisms for gathering sensor measurements and sharing analytics is also discussed. And finally a comparison of OpenFMB and LBNL’s SPARK framework is summarized. Today’s electrical utilities focus on monitoring the real-time customer consumptions, offering new real-time tariff models based on customer usage habits (rewards and punishments), providing energy peak during peak load times (plan energy generation and distribution), improving the load management for transformers and power lines, and controlling the energy and grid resources efficiently. On the other hand,more » the DA applications for residential customers are based on modifying the customer electricity usage habit to save money, making accurate and timely decisions for electrical billing. However, the DA applications for industrial, commercial and government customers focus on creating efficient programs to improve the environmental condition (reducing CO₂ emission), developing better load forecasting for industrial and/or commercial activities. In this project, a testbed was built to explore how the OpenFMB framework can be used to distribute data among various types of representative grid edge devices. Micro PMUs (Phasor Measurement Unit) were used to collect and transmit data to an OpenPDC server alongside relays with a framework configured with a system using OpenFMB to collect and transmit data. The testbed was composed of a physical asset based on a 60 Hz AC radial power system constructed using SI-GRID components. The power system consisted of a 3-phase 14 volts line-to-ground (24 volts line-to-line) power source, three 3-phase line emulators, a programmable resistive load bank, two smart relays, two micro PMUs, and a (SCADA) and Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) computer. This testbed configuration allowed us to perform breaker operation tests collecting data from the micro PMUs and from the relays’ sensors. During the micro PMU breaker operation tests we collected the measured and estimated fundamental voltages, currents, frequency as well as the total true, reactive and apparent power. The displacement power factor from two micro PMUs located in parallel power lines was also used. The software steps for the implementation of the Synchrophasor system are explained in detail in this report. The setting (1-2-3) and data collection (4-5) phases were performed with a free download open source software. In the setting phase, the micro PMUs were set (1), the data stream for each micro PMU was validated, and the connection and configuration files were created (2). The PDC computer was set using the connection and configuration files of the micro PMUs (3). In the data collection phase, the binary data from the micro PMUs was collected (4), and the binary data files of the micro PMUs was converted to analyze the test results (5). OpenFMB was configured to use protocol translators to read Modbus and transform the reading into the OpenFMB data model to be read for DA applications.Our experiments showed that by leveraging the OpenFMB data model and the micro PMUs together we could obtain better situational awareness of network faults, which in some cases could lead to failures in the system and would be less perceivable otherwise. For example, in one experiment the fundamental RMS current angle, and the fundamental displacement power factor (estimated by the ratio between the measured real and apparent total power) had a disturbance at the micro PMU connected to the beginning of the parallel power line because the breaker was opened without the operators or SCADA system’s knowledge, and no current was available. Based on the breaker state scenarios and micro PMU locations, the DA applications using the current angle and displacement power factor from the micro PMUs should be studied in detail to avoid a non-desired measurement that could affect the decision from the DA. Also, the sample rates for PMU, Relay and micro PMU devices were compared. The DA application improved the control and operation between the electrical utilities and their customers (residential, industrial, transportation, commercial and government). The higher the sample rate, the better the quality of the measurement for DA estimations.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1649516
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2019/1304
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

Borges Hink, Raymond C., and Piesciorovsky, Emilio C.. Data Analytics for Electrical Distribution Systems with Micro PMUs (GMLC 1.4.9 Technical Report). United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1649516.
Borges Hink, Raymond C., & Piesciorovsky, Emilio C.. Data Analytics for Electrical Distribution Systems with Micro PMUs (GMLC 1.4.9 Technical Report). United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1649516
Borges Hink, Raymond C., and Piesciorovsky, Emilio C.. 2019. "Data Analytics for Electrical Distribution Systems with Micro PMUs (GMLC 1.4.9 Technical Report)". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1649516. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1649516.
@article{osti_1649516,
title = {Data Analytics for Electrical Distribution Systems with Micro PMUs (GMLC 1.4.9 Technical Report)},
author = {Borges Hink, Raymond C. and Piesciorovsky, Emilio C.},
abstractNote = {This report describes how electrical utilities with residential, industrial, commercial and government customers make decisions using Data Analytics (DA) applications and discusses how OpenFMB was leveraged to share that data among disparate types of devices for DA. OpenFMB is a data standard developed by utilities for distributed communication and control of power system assets. Here we explored how OpenFMB can be used for sharing analytics and what those analytics could be for a set of representative grid devices. A review of DA applications performed by electrical utilities and customers is presented. An overview of how the testbed we used was built and configured is summarized. Several experiments which were carried out to explore the capabilities of OpenFMB alongside other data sharing mechanisms for gathering sensor measurements and sharing analytics is also discussed. And finally a comparison of OpenFMB and LBNL’s SPARK framework is summarized. Today’s electrical utilities focus on monitoring the real-time customer consumptions, offering new real-time tariff models based on customer usage habits (rewards and punishments), providing energy peak during peak load times (plan energy generation and distribution), improving the load management for transformers and power lines, and controlling the energy and grid resources efficiently. On the other hand, the DA applications for residential customers are based on modifying the customer electricity usage habit to save money, making accurate and timely decisions for electrical billing. However, the DA applications for industrial, commercial and government customers focus on creating efficient programs to improve the environmental condition (reducing CO₂ emission), developing better load forecasting for industrial and/or commercial activities. In this project, a testbed was built to explore how the OpenFMB framework can be used to distribute data among various types of representative grid edge devices. Micro PMUs (Phasor Measurement Unit) were used to collect and transmit data to an OpenPDC server alongside relays with a framework configured with a system using OpenFMB to collect and transmit data. The testbed was composed of a physical asset based on a 60 Hz AC radial power system constructed using SI-GRID components. The power system consisted of a 3-phase 14 volts line-to-ground (24 volts line-to-line) power source, three 3-phase line emulators, a programmable resistive load bank, two smart relays, two micro PMUs, and a (SCADA) and Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) computer. This testbed configuration allowed us to perform breaker operation tests collecting data from the micro PMUs and from the relays’ sensors. During the micro PMU breaker operation tests we collected the measured and estimated fundamental voltages, currents, frequency as well as the total true, reactive and apparent power. The displacement power factor from two micro PMUs located in parallel power lines was also used. The software steps for the implementation of the Synchrophasor system are explained in detail in this report. The setting (1-2-3) and data collection (4-5) phases were performed with a free download open source software. In the setting phase, the micro PMUs were set (1), the data stream for each micro PMU was validated, and the connection and configuration files were created (2). The PDC computer was set using the connection and configuration files of the micro PMUs (3). In the data collection phase, the binary data from the micro PMUs was collected (4), and the binary data files of the micro PMUs was converted to analyze the test results (5). OpenFMB was configured to use protocol translators to read Modbus and transform the reading into the OpenFMB data model to be read for DA applications.Our experiments showed that by leveraging the OpenFMB data model and the micro PMUs together we could obtain better situational awareness of network faults, which in some cases could lead to failures in the system and would be less perceivable otherwise. For example, in one experiment the fundamental RMS current angle, and the fundamental displacement power factor (estimated by the ratio between the measured real and apparent total power) had a disturbance at the micro PMU connected to the beginning of the parallel power line because the breaker was opened without the operators or SCADA system’s knowledge, and no current was available. Based on the breaker state scenarios and micro PMU locations, the DA applications using the current angle and displacement power factor from the micro PMUs should be studied in detail to avoid a non-desired measurement that could affect the decision from the DA. Also, the sample rates for PMU, Relay and micro PMU devices were compared. The DA application improved the control and operation between the electrical utilities and their customers (residential, industrial, transportation, commercial and government). The higher the sample rate, the better the quality of the measurement for DA estimations.},
doi = {10.2172/1649516},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1649516}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}