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Title: Accelerated Testing of Selected Filler Compositions

Abstract

The fillers R&D program, mostly experimental, is part of a broader R&D program that includes new process modeling and performance assessment of criticality effects and the overall importance of criticality to repository performance (consequence screening). A literature research and consultation effort with experts by Hardin and Brady (2018) identified several potentially effective and workable filler materials including cements (primarily phosphate based), molten-metal alloys, and low-temperature glasses. Filler attributes were defined and the preliminary lists were compared qualitatively. Further comparative analysis will be done (e.g., cost estimates) after experimental screening has narrowed the list of alternatives. The following cement filler compositions were selected for experimental development work and accelerated testing in FY19: Aluminum phosphate cements (APCs); more specifically aluminum oxide / aluminum phosphate (Al 2O 3/ AlPO 4) cements in which Al 2O 3 serves as the filler material bound by an AlPO 4 binder formed by the reaction of Al 2O 3 with H 3PO 4; Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs); more specifically composed of pure or nearly pure hydroxyapatite (Ca 5(PO 4) 3(OH)); Magnesium potassium phosphate cements (MKPs) composed of magnesium oxide / magnesium potassium phosphate (MgO / MgKPO 4) cements in which MgO serves as the filler and MgKPOmore » 4 serves as the binder formed by the reaction of MgO with monopotassium phosphate (KH 2PO 4) and tricalcium phosphate ((Ca 3(PO 4) 2); Two additional potential cement materials were explored preliminarily as the result of: (1) continued literature investigations into other filler candidates (wollastonite-based phosphate ceramic) and (2) the experimental discovery of a well-consolidated fly ash phosphate cement during the evaluation of fly ash as a potential filler material with Al 2O 3in APCs. Fly ash phosphate cements, more specifically in which a fly ash material composed primarily of mullite and quartz serves as the filler and is reacted with H 3PO 4 to form amorphous phosphate phase(s) as the binder; Wollastonite aluminum phosphate cements (WAPC), specifically wollastonite / aluminum phosphate (CaSiO 3/ AlPO 4) in which CaSiO 3 serves as the filler material and AlPO 4 serves as the binder formed by Al(OH) 3 or metakaolin as Al sources and H 3PO 4 or ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) (NH 4H 2PO 4) as phosphate sources. The FY19 effort focused on the optimization of compositions and subsequent processing of these five materials to achieve dense and well-consolidated monolithic samples with relatively low porosity. Once these goals were met basic material properties screening evaluations were performed including an assessment of dissolution resistance in water at elevated temperature (200 °C) and mechanical testing including unconfined compressive strength (UCS) testing. To date, the aluminum phosphate cements (APCs) appear to show the most promise for continued development. They are easily prepared and form smooth pourable slurries that remain stable for days with relatively low viscosities of several thousand centipoise (cP). They are then set at elevated temperatures (e.g., 170 °C) under ambient (0.1 MPa) or elevated pressure (~1MPa). Overall, they demonstrate the best dissolution resistance in water at elevated temperature (200 °C) and good compressive strengths. However, additional effort is required to optimize the APC slurry formulations and the process used for thermal curing these materials. The calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) can be formed at room temperature to produce a well-consolidated body. However, their slurry viscosities are very high (and difficult to measure) and they exhibit relatively short cure times of 2 to 3 hours. Also, dissolution resistance is very poor, the poorest of all the cements examined The same is the case for the small number of MKP cements fabricated; they cure very quickly (10 minutes or less) and disintegrate within a few hours upon immersion in distilled water. Surprisingly, fly ash reacts with phosphoric acid to form dense and well-consolidated cements but the mixture rapidly sets at room temperature (less than 30 minutes) and the subsequent conversion of the binder to an amorphous phosphate phase(s) as a function of temperature is complicated. Finally, the wollastonite aluminum phosphate cements (WAPC) are easily prepared and form smooth pourable slurries that remain stable for several hours. They are then set at 130 °C. A WAPC sample exhibited the highest compressive strengths of all the materials we evaluated but in general their dissolution resistance to water is poor.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  2. Pleasanton Ridge Research LLC, Edgewood, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Supply Chain
OSTI Identifier:
1647436
Report Number(s):
SAND-2020-8131R
689777
DOE Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Rigali, Mark J., Lindgren, Eric R., Phillips, Mark, Burton, Patrick D., and Basurto, Eduardo. Accelerated Testing of Selected Filler Compositions. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1647436.
Rigali, Mark J., Lindgren, Eric R., Phillips, Mark, Burton, Patrick D., & Basurto, Eduardo. Accelerated Testing of Selected Filler Compositions. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1647436
Rigali, Mark J., Lindgren, Eric R., Phillips, Mark, Burton, Patrick D., and Basurto, Eduardo. Fri . "Accelerated Testing of Selected Filler Compositions". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1647436. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1647436.
@article{osti_1647436,
title = {Accelerated Testing of Selected Filler Compositions},
author = {Rigali, Mark J. and Lindgren, Eric R. and Phillips, Mark and Burton, Patrick D. and Basurto, Eduardo},
abstractNote = {The fillers R&D program, mostly experimental, is part of a broader R&D program that includes new process modeling and performance assessment of criticality effects and the overall importance of criticality to repository performance (consequence screening). A literature research and consultation effort with experts by Hardin and Brady (2018) identified several potentially effective and workable filler materials including cements (primarily phosphate based), molten-metal alloys, and low-temperature glasses. Filler attributes were defined and the preliminary lists were compared qualitatively. Further comparative analysis will be done (e.g., cost estimates) after experimental screening has narrowed the list of alternatives. The following cement filler compositions were selected for experimental development work and accelerated testing in FY19: Aluminum phosphate cements (APCs); more specifically aluminum oxide / aluminum phosphate (Al2O3/ AlPO4) cements in which Al2O3 serves as the filler material bound by an AlPO4 binder formed by the reaction of Al2O3 with H3PO4; Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs); more specifically composed of pure or nearly pure hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)); Magnesium potassium phosphate cements (MKPs) composed of magnesium oxide / magnesium potassium phosphate (MgO / MgKPO4) cements in which MgO serves as the filler and MgKPO4 serves as the binder formed by the reaction of MgO with monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4) and tricalcium phosphate ((Ca3(PO4)2); Two additional potential cement materials were explored preliminarily as the result of: (1) continued literature investigations into other filler candidates (wollastonite-based phosphate ceramic) and (2) the experimental discovery of a well-consolidated fly ash phosphate cement during the evaluation of fly ash as a potential filler material with Al2O3in APCs. Fly ash phosphate cements, more specifically in which a fly ash material composed primarily of mullite and quartz serves as the filler and is reacted with H3PO4 to form amorphous phosphate phase(s) as the binder; Wollastonite aluminum phosphate cements (WAPC), specifically wollastonite / aluminum phosphate (CaSiO3/ AlPO4) in which CaSiO3 serves as the filler material and AlPO4 serves as the binder formed by Al(OH)3 or metakaolin as Al sources and H3PO4 or ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) (NH4H2PO4) as phosphate sources. The FY19 effort focused on the optimization of compositions and subsequent processing of these five materials to achieve dense and well-consolidated monolithic samples with relatively low porosity. Once these goals were met basic material properties screening evaluations were performed including an assessment of dissolution resistance in water at elevated temperature (200 °C) and mechanical testing including unconfined compressive strength (UCS) testing. To date, the aluminum phosphate cements (APCs) appear to show the most promise for continued development. They are easily prepared and form smooth pourable slurries that remain stable for days with relatively low viscosities of several thousand centipoise (cP). They are then set at elevated temperatures (e.g., 170 °C) under ambient (0.1 MPa) or elevated pressure (~1MPa). Overall, they demonstrate the best dissolution resistance in water at elevated temperature (200 °C) and good compressive strengths. However, additional effort is required to optimize the APC slurry formulations and the process used for thermal curing these materials. The calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) can be formed at room temperature to produce a well-consolidated body. However, their slurry viscosities are very high (and difficult to measure) and they exhibit relatively short cure times of 2 to 3 hours. Also, dissolution resistance is very poor, the poorest of all the cements examined The same is the case for the small number of MKP cements fabricated; they cure very quickly (10 minutes or less) and disintegrate within a few hours upon immersion in distilled water. Surprisingly, fly ash reacts with phosphoric acid to form dense and well-consolidated cements but the mixture rapidly sets at room temperature (less than 30 minutes) and the subsequent conversion of the binder to an amorphous phosphate phase(s) as a function of temperature is complicated. Finally, the wollastonite aluminum phosphate cements (WAPC) are easily prepared and form smooth pourable slurries that remain stable for several hours. They are then set at 130 °C. A WAPC sample exhibited the highest compressive strengths of all the materials we evaluated but in general their dissolution resistance to water is poor.},
doi = {10.2172/1647436},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1647436}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}