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Title: Charge collection and electrical characterization of neutron irradiated silicon pad detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

Abstract

The replacement of the existing endcap calorimeter in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector for the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), scheduled for 2027, will be a high granularity calorimeter. It will provide detailed position, energy, and timing information on electromagnetic and hadronic showers in the immense pileup of the HL-LHC. The High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) will use 120-, 200-, and 300-$$\mu\textrm{m}$$ thick silicon (Si) pad sensors as the main active material and will sustain 1-MeV neutron equivalent fluences up to about $$10^{16}~\textrm{n}_\textrm{eq}\textrm{cm}^{-2}$$. In order to address the performance degradation of the Si detectors caused by the intense radiation environment, irradiation campaigns of test diode samples from 8-inch and 6-inch wafers were performed in two reactors. Characterization of the electrical and charge collection properties after irradiation involved both bulk polarities for the three sensor thicknesses. Since the Si sensors will be operated at -30 $$^\circ$$C to reduce increasing bulk leakage current with fluence, the charge collection investigation of 30 irradiated samples was carried out with the infrared-TCT setup at -30 $$^\circ$$C. TCAD simulation results at the lower fluences are in close agreement with the experimental results and provide predictions of sensor performance for the lower fluence regions not covered by the experimental study. All investigated sensors display 60$$\%$$ or higher charge collection efficiency at their respective highest lifetime fluences when operated at 800 V, and display above 90$$\%$$ at the lowest fluence, at 600 V. The collected charge close to the fluence of $$10^{16}~\textrm{n}_\textrm{eq}\textrm{cm}^{-2}$$ exceeds 1 fC at voltages beyond 800 V.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [2];  [3];  [6];  [4];  [3];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [2];  [1];  [5];  [1];  [5];  [2];  [3] more »;  [6];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [7] « less
  1. Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)
  2. European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
  3. Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)
  4. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  5. Inst. für Hochenergiephysik, Vienna (Austria)
  6. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
  7. Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
OSTI Identifier:
1638956
Report Number(s):
arXiv:2005.08051; FERMILAB-PUB-20-297-CMS
Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221; oai:inspirehep.net:1796823
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Instrumentation
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 09; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; Detector modelling and simulations II (electric fields, charge transport, multiplication and induction, pulse formation, electron emission, etc); Radiation-hard detectors; Si microstrip and pad detectors

Citation Formats

Akchurin, N., Almeida, P., Altopp, G., Alyari, M., Bergauer, T., Brondolin, E., Burkle, B., Frey, W. D., Gecse, Z., Heintz, U., Hinton, N., Kuryatkov, V., Lipton, R., Mannelli, M., Mengke, T., Paulitsch, P., Peltola, T., Pitters, F., Sicking, E., Spencer, E., Tripathi, M., Barreto Pinto, M. V., Voelker, J., Wang, Z., and Yohay, R. Charge collection and electrical characterization of neutron irradiated silicon pad detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/15/09/p09031.
Akchurin, N., Almeida, P., Altopp, G., Alyari, M., Bergauer, T., Brondolin, E., Burkle, B., Frey, W. D., Gecse, Z., Heintz, U., Hinton, N., Kuryatkov, V., Lipton, R., Mannelli, M., Mengke, T., Paulitsch, P., Peltola, T., Pitters, F., Sicking, E., Spencer, E., Tripathi, M., Barreto Pinto, M. V., Voelker, J., Wang, Z., & Yohay, R. Charge collection and electrical characterization of neutron irradiated silicon pad detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter. United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/15/09/p09031.
Akchurin, N., Almeida, P., Altopp, G., Alyari, M., Bergauer, T., Brondolin, E., Burkle, B., Frey, W. D., Gecse, Z., Heintz, U., Hinton, N., Kuryatkov, V., Lipton, R., Mannelli, M., Mengke, T., Paulitsch, P., Peltola, T., Pitters, F., Sicking, E., Spencer, E., Tripathi, M., Barreto Pinto, M. V., Voelker, J., Wang, Z., and Yohay, R. Tue . "Charge collection and electrical characterization of neutron irradiated silicon pad detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter". United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/15/09/p09031. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1638956.
@article{osti_1638956,
title = {Charge collection and electrical characterization of neutron irradiated silicon pad detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter},
author = {Akchurin, N. and Almeida, P. and Altopp, G. and Alyari, M. and Bergauer, T. and Brondolin, E. and Burkle, B. and Frey, W. D. and Gecse, Z. and Heintz, U. and Hinton, N. and Kuryatkov, V. and Lipton, R. and Mannelli, M. and Mengke, T. and Paulitsch, P. and Peltola, T. and Pitters, F. and Sicking, E. and Spencer, E. and Tripathi, M. and Barreto Pinto, M. V. and Voelker, J. and Wang, Z. and Yohay, R.},
abstractNote = {The replacement of the existing endcap calorimeter in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector for the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), scheduled for 2027, will be a high granularity calorimeter. It will provide detailed position, energy, and timing information on electromagnetic and hadronic showers in the immense pileup of the HL-LHC. The High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) will use 120-, 200-, and 300-$\mu\textrm{m}$ thick silicon (Si) pad sensors as the main active material and will sustain 1-MeV neutron equivalent fluences up to about $10^{16}~\textrm{n}_\textrm{eq}\textrm{cm}^{-2}$. In order to address the performance degradation of the Si detectors caused by the intense radiation environment, irradiation campaigns of test diode samples from 8-inch and 6-inch wafers were performed in two reactors. Characterization of the electrical and charge collection properties after irradiation involved both bulk polarities for the three sensor thicknesses. Since the Si sensors will be operated at -30 $^\circ$C to reduce increasing bulk leakage current with fluence, the charge collection investigation of 30 irradiated samples was carried out with the infrared-TCT setup at -30 $^\circ$C. TCAD simulation results at the lower fluences are in close agreement with the experimental results and provide predictions of sensor performance for the lower fluence regions not covered by the experimental study. All investigated sensors display 60$\%$ or higher charge collection efficiency at their respective highest lifetime fluences when operated at 800 V, and display above 90$\%$ at the lowest fluence, at 600 V. The collected charge close to the fluence of $10^{16}~\textrm{n}_\textrm{eq}\textrm{cm}^{-2}$ exceeds 1 fC at voltages beyond 800 V.},
doi = {10.1088/1748-0221/15/09/p09031},
journal = {Journal of Instrumentation},
issn = {1748-0221},
number = 09,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {9}
}

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